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Chapter 13 2070 final exam.docx

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Psychology 2070A/B
James M Olson

Chapter 13 2070 final exam 12/17/2012 7:22:00 PM Liking, Loving, and Close Relationships Dyadic relationships- relationships that develop between two people  The first dyadic relationship is the one between an infant and a primary caregiver (usually mom) Interpersonal attraction- the study of attraction or liking between two or more people  Birds of a feather flock together, but we PREFER the BETTER looking birds Propinquity – nearness or proximity in physical space, creates the opportunity to meet another person  Includes internet communication  Physical communication plays an important role How often the paths of two neighbors cross depends on spatial ecology which is the physical layout of the buildings and the distance separating apartments Functional distance- compared to physical distance, the closeness between two places in terms of the opportunities for interaction  Most interaction beside stairs  Friends were often named who lived within closer physical AND functional proximity  Functional proximity was MORE IMPORTANT than physical proximity in determining mutual friendships  Close proximity doesn’t necessarily guarantee that you will be friends, in fact it can have the opposite effect  Disliked neighbors were also the ones who lived within closer proximity Propinquity matters because it gives people a chance to exchange personal information Attitude-Similarity effect- People find others more attractive and likeable the more similar they are in attitudes  Propinquity allows people to get to know each other better  Need not only be based on deep similarities (values & attitudes), people are more likely to marry someone whose first or last name is more similar to theirs!  Just as similarity leads to liking; liking leads to similarity  Repulsion Hypothesis- Another study showed that we are not attracted to similar others but rather we are REPULSED by dissimilar others Self-Disclosure – the process of revealing to one another increasingly personal and intimate details about themselves  People who disclose more information are liked better  Satisfaction of friendship was positively correlated with amount of disclosure Not only do people differ in how much they disclose, but also how they elicit disclosure  Opener- a person who is good at getting others to disclose intimate details about themselves High disclosers were willing to reveal intimate information to anyone  Low disclosers were more comfortable revealing information to partners who had good rather than poor opener abilities Facial Beauty  First thing you notice is the face  Babies even show a preference for attractive over unattractive faces  People DO judge books by their covers, and beauty is MORE than skin deep  People across borders show remarkable agreement when asked to rate attractiveness of strangers faces Facialmetrics- the measurement of a large number of facial features  Size of a nose or the wide of a smile  Women rate males faces as more attractive with prominent cheekbones, large chin, wide smile, and when the height of the eyes does not deviate far from the average  Males indicate preference for females with large eyes, a small nose and chin, prominent cheekbones, high eyebrows, large pupils, and a large smile  Size of targets eyes seem to be important, the smaller the eyes the more masculine, less nurturing, and less empathy there are than larger eyes  Height of eyes, it is deviance from the average that makes a face less attractive Evolutionary pressures  Favor average rather than extreme population features  Starting from infancy, people routinely form cognitive schemas that capture the central or average features o Faces will be judged as more attractive the closer they are to the average of the population of faces  Out of the 2,4,8,16, or 32 face composites, the 16/32 were chosen amongst to be the most appealing Body Types  Most women have bigger hips and smaller waists, and men have nearly the same size hips and waist  Female figures were judged more attractive when the exhibited a low rather than high waist-to-hip ratio  Male figures were judged more attractive when they exhibited a waist-to-hip ratio closer to 1.0 o Behaved more dominantly and were rated as more leader-like in an all male group with men that had smaller waist-to-hip ratios  ONLY WHEN JUDGED BY WOMEN o Higher waist-to-hip ratios associated with higher levels of testosterone Weight  In NA there is a stigma to being overweight  Weight is communicated though a cultures customs and ideas Height  Males should be taller, but not too tall  Preference for men of medium height (1.8m) Body Odour  People who have a pleasant body odor are judged as more attractive than those who smell bad  People that aware and able to control their odor problem were less liked Evolutionary significance  Explanation of effects of waist-to-hip ratio o Females reach the age of menarche, become biologically able to reproduce, the hips become relatively larger than their waists – a signal they are ready to reproduce o For men, it is a sign of good health and capability of reproducing  Explanation of effects of weight o Some cultures where food is scare, plump bodies are a greater reproductive potential  Facial attractiveness is strongly related to the perceived health of the models skin o Prefer faces to display symmetry o Women with attractive faces experience fewer health problems o Men with more attractive faces came from wealthier backgrounds People make the inference that what is beautiful is good- attractive people possess other desirable traits and abilities in addition to their good looks  Attractive babies were judged by adults as smarter, easier to care for, and causing less problems  Attractive adults have been judged as more socially competent and socially skilled than unattractive people  However, attractive and unattractive people are judged no differently in their integrity or concern for others o THIS IS CULTURAL  Students in Korea- the more attractive people were judged to be high in integrity and concern for others “what is beautiful is culturally good” In the end, it IS TRUE,  Physically attractive people are more popular, more socially skilled, and are more sexually experience o This is because of their confidence and their repetitive and more likely exposure to such events as sexual behavior  Attractive and unattractive people do not differ in intelligence or mental health Attractiveness and the LAW  Physically attractive defendants found less guilty  Physically unattractive defendants found more guilty  Can backfire if accused of SWINDLING (taking money from someone)  A defendants attributes are important when other information is lacking or is extremely ambiguous  However, usually the strength of evidence determines the case Friendships- dyadic relationships involving mutual liking  it is propinquity that provides the opportunity for children to develop close relationships with their peers Sociometric rating procedure  Two peers within that social network are considered to be friends if each one nominates the other as a friend The strongest determinant to develop friendship is similarity (in age, sex, ethnicity, race, and interests) Popularity  Popularity are the ones who are named frequently by others in a sociometric rating procedure  Good at maintaining positive relationships  Avoid drawing attention to themselves  Play constructively  More physically attractive  Boys who were previously popular emerged as popular in the new group Unpopularity  Unpopular because they frequently engage in disruptive aggressive behaviors  These children are called rejected-aggressive children o Tend to brag about and call attention to themselves o Uncooperative in groups o Insensitive to others interests and needs  Rejected-withdrawn children- children who are spurned by their peers because of their social awkwardness and immaturity o Develop low self-esteem o Frequently the victims of bullying  Boys who found themselves rejected in old groups were again rejected in new groups Peer conformity increased from 3 rdgrade through to the 9 thgrade but then th reduced from 11-12 grade  Reflects a developmental trend toward greater autonomy in late adolescence CLASSIC example of NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE  Fitting in with your peers bring heavy social pressure to conform Simply thinking about significant others can automatically activity goals and elicit actions related to those individuals  Described as a memory task but was actually a priming task  Those who were primed with their mother generated more words from the set of letters than did participants who were primed neutrally o More motivation from their mother  Simply thinking about a significant person in ones life can automatically activate goals related to that person Friendship among adults  One thing that predicted success of a friendship is propinquity o More likely to develop between roommates than two students who live in different buildings  Self disclosure of increasingly intimate details becomes very important part of growing friendships  Both men and women agree that intimacy in same-sex friendships is more likely when friends engage in behaviors of self-disclosure and emotion support o Men less likely to do this o Fear it will be negatively perceived by male friends Rejection  Social rejection in the three way game of catch caused a response in the participants brain that is similar to experience of physical pain  Social and physical pain operate through the pain system  Evolutionary development that aided humans to respond to threats of exclusion Attachment theory- development and the effects of the emotional bond between an infant and its caregiver; also used to account for the relationship that develops between close friends and lovers throughout the life span  Emphasizes ethological approach, focuses on innate behaviors that have been shaped during course of evolution The strange situation- a procedure involving several brief episodes during which experimenters observe a baby’s response to strangers, separation from mother, and reunions with the mother 3 categories  Secure most common pattern (62%) o Actively explores when left alone o Happy when mom returns o Seeks close physical proximity (secure attachment)  Resistant o Insecure attachment o Stay close with mother rather than explore o Upset when mother leaves o Upset or angry when mother returns o Yet try to remain near mothers but resist any physical contact initiated by her (resistant insecure attachment)  Avoidant o Basically ignore their mothers o Show no signs of disturbance when she leaves the room o Greet return of mother rather casually (avoidant insecure attachment) IS IT UNIVERSAL?  Japanese babies rarely experience separation from their mothers o As a result they show extreme anxiety when separated in strange situation  Secure pattern of attachment still the most frequently used pattern in the world  Avoidant pattern occurs in greater frequency in NA and western European countries  Resistant pattern more likely in Israel, japan, and other Asian countries Working model of a close relationship- the feelings, thoughts, beliefs, and expectations learned during the course of an infants first close relationships  Indicates that others can be trusted  Indicates that the baby can be loved o For insecure babies, it can sometimes involve acceptance, and sometimes rejection Attachment beyond infancy  Attachment pattern at 12 months was still evident at 6 years  Most stable at a time where there is little disruption or change in the child’s life o Disruption such as divorce or dramatic socioec
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