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PSYCH 2070 – CHAP 8.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2070A/B
Professor
Olson James
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYCH 2070 – CHAP 8  Conformity  change in behaviour caused by another person/group   beavhiour not specifically requested or ordered by others   eg. doing something because someone else is – natural to follow  study: people usually go along with incorrect responses of others even if reality is plain as it can be  Compliance  change in behaviour requested by another person/group  Obedience  change in behaviour ordered by another person/group   failing to obey was not presented as an option Why do we conform?  Informational influence  influenced by others b/c of desire to be correct and obtain accurate info  People often rely on others as source of info  trust judgment to be useful  Normative influence  influenced by others to gain reward/ avoid punishment  Eg. obey laws to avoid being punished   please other people (normative)  whose judgments we seek (informational) Conformity: Doing as others do (requests) Shierif’s Autokenetic Effect Studies  social norm  rule/guideline about what behaviours are proper/improper  reward for following norm  social acceptance  punishment  social rejection  social norm one source of conformity  influence from others and guide behave The Autokinetic Effect  autokinetic effect  in dark room  point of light appear to move periodically  STUDY: guess how far light appeared to move  RESULTS: alone - wide range of perceived movements  Groups  similar judgments  converged depending on group size + norms  Diff results  arbitrary standard introduced by confederate established group norms carried on for individual judgements even without them present  Judgments ambiguous Multigenerational norms  Norms carried on from generation to generation  give tips in restaurant  STUDY: replace old members (starting members planted by experimenter) by new members for 11 generations  norms carried on long after Asch’s Length Judgment Studies  Social norms not relevant b/c task is simple and clear cut  STUDY: Match standard line with one of 3 compaison lines  not ambiguous  RESULTS: rarely make error when making judgment alone  Study: people in front of you give wrong answer before you call out judgment  Results: 23% went against group  correct answer  remained independent  77% yield to group pressure  wrong answer The Crutchfield Apparatus  7 people disagree with judgment in face to face setting  powerful social influence  crutchfield apparatus  machine consists of electrical panel with several row of lights  allows efficient study of conformity by stimulating responses of numerous hypothetical participants  study: with crutchfield apparatus  line length study  results similar to asch  other studies  participants showed some conformity to judgments of others  personal preferences  little/no effect to group pressure Nature of the Task  conformity more likely when tasks are ambiguous  study: line length judgment in 2 series  difficult and easier test  RESULTS: more conformity found when judgments harder  based on memory  Difficult task  responses exert both informational and normative influence   feel pressure to follow others and uses it as source of info about correct answer  Easy task  only normative influence Individual Differences  STUDY: people who remain independent are somewhat higher in their motivation to achieve and in leadership ability than people who conform   less concerned about being approval, less authoritarian and conscientious   high self esteem, strong sense of self  less likely to conform  Study: conformity to peers increases during elementary – peaks at gr 9, declines up to uni  conformity decreases in adult years as age increases Effect of Group size  Study: conformity increases as size of group grew from 1-3,   increase beyond 4/5+  little effect on conformity How to make conformity disappear  STUDY: reduction in conformity  when judgments anonymous rather than face to face with opposing majority   more likely to conform when must communicate judgments to those people   participants in orig conformity experiments did no privately accept incorrect judgments of majority  instead conformed publicly b/c of normative pressure Cultural Differences in Conformity  STUDY: conformity higher in collectivist than individualist (strong self, independent Gender Differences and Conformity  Women conform slightly more than men  only when responses are public  Women may be susceptible to normative influence more than men Compliance: Doing as others want The foot in the door technique  Foot in the door technique  if can get someone to agree to small request  then more likely to agree to much larger related request  Self perception processes  infer internal states (attitudes/emotions) from behaviour and situation which it occurred   small request  self perception b/c engage themselves as helpful b/c complied to request  larger request  agree b/c after all they are helpful people  consistency processes  desire for consistency  after agreeing to intial request  feel that refusing second request would be inconsistent  score high in PFC (preference for consistency) susceptible to foot in the door tech The door in the face technique  door in the face  make large request – sure
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