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PSYCH 2070 CHAP 4.docx

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Psychology 2070A/B
Olson James

PSYCH 2070 CHAP 4 Social Perception: Attributions  Judgment about personal qualities and external forces  attribution theories  Attributions  casual judgment about why an event/behavior occurred Intuitive Scientist  Intuitive scientist  untrained scientists who try to make casual judgments in a rational scientific manner – Harold Kelley  Eg. decide if friend is crying because movie is sad or if sentimental  Covariation model of attribution  make judgment by figuring out whether behavior associated with a particular person, situation or both False Consensus Effect  If have personal exp with situation  assume others would respond in similar way  draw conclusion about cause of behavior from assumption  Eg. if you cried from movie  conclude that movie is sad  False consensus effect  tendency to assume others share own attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than is actually the case  Overestimate that others would do the same thing as you  Why it occurs  we interact mainly with people who agree with us   we want to believe others agree with us  people sometimes underestimate when it makes them look good  eg. underestimate how many people would stop to help stranded motorist Discounting and Augmentation  discounting principle  perceived role of one cause will be diminished/discounted (reduced) if other plausible causes are present   usually reduce role of internal cause because external cause is present  eg. do well on test  class avg 85  test was just easy  augmentation principle  perceived role of cause will be augmented (increased) if other factors are present that would work against the behaviour  eg. do well on test  class avg 45  student is smart The correspondence Bias: A Fundamental Attribution Error  correspondence bias  tendency to assume people’s actions and words reflect personality, attitudes or some internal rather than external factors  overestimate role of personality – underestimate situational factors Causes of Correspondence Bias 1. overlook or be unaware of situational factors that influence others behaviour 2. underestimate power of situational factors 3. process of taking situational factors into account require cognitive resources that may not always be available Study: when perceivers observe another indiv action  first assume behavior reflect indiv dispositions adjust assumption if necessary  initial step of assuming behave reflect internal deposition is automatic nd  2 step  using situational factors to adjust assumption  not automatic Culture and Correspondence Bias 4. cultural differences  western culture  individualism  focus on internal, personal variables when explaining behaviour  Asian  weaker correspondence bias than north American The Appeal of Social Psychology  Study – Milgram – oridinary people will follow orders of experimenter to deliver intense electric shocks to another person  Bystander intervention – people who witness emergency will not help b/c of presence of other bystanders Beyond Words: Understanding Nonverbal Behaviour  Nonverbal behaviour  actions, cues communicate meanings without words  Research: verbal and nonverbal cues directly conflict  observers rely on nonverbal cues to interpret message  eg. sarcasm  Study: answer questions better if watched video than just read script  Nonverbal cues useful to judge emotions  not completely under our control  Study: adult rely on nonverbal cues – children verbal until 9-10 only 40% do Facial Expressions  Darwin  facial expressions in human biologically based and universal  Study: expressions can be identified regardless of culture   but when had to generate own label  agreement dropped substantially  Study: judgments of emotions in pics influenced by other pics in the set  Study: cross cultural recog accuracy was above chance on seven basic emotions (angry, contempt, disgust, fear, happy, sad, surprise)  Happiness and anger  best recognized emotions Gender and Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Behaviour  Women better judges than men of other people’s emotions  Womens facial expression easier to judge than men – express more emotions Cultural Differences in Non Verbal Behaviour  Display rules  norms for how and when emotions should be expressed  Eg. greeting – Canada shake hands, japan bow, Europe kisses on cheek What we see in ourselves – self perception  Rely on others – people tell us about ourselves  Looking glass self  other people’s judgment about us will be integrated into our self-concept  Study: children in labeling condition changed behave more than persuasion condit.  Eg. child told they are neat and tidy vs told they should be neat and tidy Social Comparison  Social comparison  comparing ourselves to others in order to judge the self  Festinger’s theory of social comparison  assumption that people are motivated to make accurate judgments about their abilities and opinions  assumed we want to know true strength/weakness + validity of attitudes/opinions  Upward social comparison  compare w/ ppl who are better or more skilled  Desire to improve  Downward social comparison  compare w/ ppl who are worse or less skilled  To make yourself feel better  Study: more likely to engage in downward SC – optimist  upward – pessimist Diverse Consequence of Upward Social Comparison  Relative deprivation  feeling of angry/resentment about outcome based on comparison with people who are better-off  Basking the reflected glory - friend achieve success – if same domain you’re pursing  may feel like a failure/jealous – if another domain – will feel happy for friend Cultural Differences in Social Comparison  Individualist culture  independent being – stable abilities, traits, attitudes  Collectivist culture  interdependent – contribute to harmonious group  Study: Asian Canadians engaged in more social comparison than Europ
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