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Psych 2070 Final Exam Summary of Chapters 8-13.docx
Psych 2070 Final Exam Summary of Chapters 8-13.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2070A/B
Olson James

Final Review Chapter 8 – Conformity - 3 Kinds of Social Influence: o Conformity: refers to any change in behavior caused by another person or group  Most general, and encompasses compliance and obedience  Happen for 2 principal reasons:  Informational influence: occurs when people are influences by others because of a desire to be correct and obtain valuable information  Normative influence: occurs when people are influenced by others to gain rewards or avoid punishment  These two kinds can occur simultaneously o Compliance: refers to change in behavior that is requested by another person or group o Obedience: refers to a change in behavior that is ordered by another person or group Concept Description Interconnections Informational influence Influence from other people Often caused by accuracy that derives from their motivation serving as sources of information Normative influence Influence from other people Often caused by social that derives from motivation perceptions of what behavior is considered proper and improper Accuracy motivation The desire to make accurate One important source of judgments and decisions informational influence Social motivation The desire to establish and One important source of maintain social normative influence relationships - People sometimes go along with the behavior of others because of social norms: socially defined standards of proper and improper behavior o Sherif  Autokinetic effect used to study the emergence of norms  Refers to the fact that in a darkened room, a stationary point of light will appear to move  When asked to estimate the amount of movement of light, people are influenced by the responses of others, and norms that emerge in groups are maintained when members respond individually o Asch  studied conformity on a task in which the correct answer was obvious  Participants often conformed on a line judgment task when several experimental confederates had unanimously given the same, clearly incorrect answer  Crutchfield apparatus was developed to study conformity more efficiently than using Asch‟s original procedure  Consists of an electrical panel with several rows of lights; it simulates the responses of numerous hypothetical participants o Found that conformity was GREATER when tasks were ambiguous and difficult o Conformity also increased with larger groups, but only up to about 4 or 5 members o Studies in different cultures have yielded higher rates of conformity in collectivist cultures than in individualistic cultures o There is also a small gender difference, with women tending to conform somewhat more than men, but only when responses are public Compliance techniques: - Foot-in-the-door technique: reflects that agreement to a small request results in higher rates of agreement to a subsequent, larger request o May rely on self-perception processes and/or a desire for consistency - Door-in-the-face technique: reflects that refusal of a very large request results in higher rates of agreement to a subsequent, smaller request o Probably relies on the norm of reciprocity: we should reciprocate favors done for us  Occurs for 3 reasons:  Reciprocity: the requestor gave in by making a smaller request; the target should reciprocate by agreeing to it  Guilt: the target feels guilty for refusing the first request  Contrast: the second request seems smaller in comparison to the first one - Free-gift technique: involves giving someone a small gift in order to increase the likelihood that he or she will comply with a subsequent request o Also relies on norm of reciprocity o Occurs for 2 reasons:  Reciprocity: the target should reciprocate by giving something in return for the gift  Liking: the target likes the person who gave the gift and therefore help him or her - Low-ball technique: occurs when something is offered at a given price but then, after agreement, the price is increased o Even though the modified deal is less attractive, people have committed themselves to the course of action and may have engaged in post- decisional dissonance reduction o Occurs for 2 reasons:  Rationalization: target evaluates the product more positively after deciding to purchase it initially (dissonance)  Person feels committed to the car and wants to be or appear consistent (dissonance) - Scarcity technique: involves making a product appear scarce or temporary to increase its attractiveness - Liking technique: reflects the fact that we are more likely to comply with the requests of people we like than with the requests of people we dislike o May rely on the fact that we want to please people we like and on the heuristic that we help people we like - Norm of obedience to authority: refers to people‟s knowledge that legitimate authorities should be obeyed o Milgram‟s obedience study  participants were willing to administer what they believed to be painful electric shocks to an innocent victim - Terror management theory: hypothesizes that recognition of their own mortality raises anxiety in humans, which they can reduce by conforming to the values and standards of their group - Social impact theory: conceives of social influence as being the result of social forces acting on individuals, much as physical forces can affect an object - Psychosocial law: specifies the nature of the relation between the size of a group and its social influence; the principle predicts that as the number of social forces increases, overall social influence also increases, but at a declining rate Chapter 9 – Prejudice - Prejudice: negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held - Discrimination: negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their membership o Genocide: extreme form of discrimination – an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder - Aversive racism: refers to people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would fins any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups - Stereotypes: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes o Almost always oversimplified and often excessively negative o Unfavorable stereotypes can lead to prejudice and discrimination o Can have vicious cycles by leading people to behave toward members of a group in ways that actually elicit the expected actions from those members  self-fulfilling prophecy o Implicit intergroup biases: stereotypes can influence perceivers‟ judgments without their awareness  Researchers have documented implicit intergroup biases for numerous target groups; these studies have often used subliminal priming procedures: involve flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of the participant o Meta-stereotype: person‟s beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group  Influence individuals‟ expectations about their interactions with members of the outgroup and these expectations can then alter the interaction itself Emotional Source Relevant Theory Description Example Frustration Scapegoat theory People vent their Gay bashing: frustrations from looking for gay men daily life by lashing to beat up simply out against members because it gets rid of of a weak minority feelings of group frustration and stress Perceived Realistic group People dislike Disliking competition conflict theory members of a group immigrants because who are thought to they are believed to be competing for take jobs away from scarce resources native-born workers such as jobs or land Self-enhancement Social identity People form Laughing at the theory negative unusual customs or impressions of beliefs of a minority members of an religious group in outgroup in order to order to make the make their own majority religious group seem superior view seem superior Threats Integrated threat People dislike Avoiding contact theory members of a group with disabled people who are competing because interactions for scarce resources, are awkward and hold different anxiety-provoking attitudes and values, arouse anxiety, or are believed to possess undesirable characteristics Several emotional sources of prejudice and discrimination have been proposed: - Scapegoat theory - Realistic group conflict theory - Integrated threat theory Sexism: prejudice and discrimination directed against women because of their gender - One measure of sexism is the neosexism scale; neosexism is a modern, subtle form of sexism, which includes beliefs that women are no longer disadvantaged and antagonism toward women‟s demands for better treatment - Second measure of sexism is the ambivalent sexism inventory  this scale includes items to assess 2 dimensions of sexism: o Benevolent sexism: involves positive but paternalistic attitudes toward women (ex, women are good but need protection) o Hostile sexism: involves negative attitudes toward women who violate the traditional stereotype (ex, feminists) - Obesity is a particularly devastating stigma for women because physical appearance is more highly valued for women than for men in our culture o Appearance self-esteem: assess respondents‟ satisfaction with their physical looks, show that women are less satisfied with their appearance than men at all age levels - Personal-group discrimination discrepancy: refers to the tendency for people to report that they as individuals have experienced less negative treatment than the average member of their group o Ex, most women report that they have experienced less discrimination based on their gender than has the typical woman - Stereotype threat: occurs when individuals believe that if they perform poorly on a task, their performance will appear to confirm an unfavorable belief or stereotype about their group o Put pressure on people to do as well as possible in order to discredit the negative stereotype, and this pressure itself can lead to poor performance o Impairs performance by arousing anxiety and reducing memory capacity Reducing Prejudice - Direct contact with members of the disliked group  Contact hypothesis: predicts that exposure to members of an outgroup will produce more favorable attitudes toward that group o Intergroup contact must meet several prerequisites in order to produce positive attitudes, including equal status and cooperative behavior - A teaching method that encourages positive interracial contact among elementary school children is the jigsaw classroom  small, culturally diverse groups of students are formed, and each student receives one part of the material to be learned - Color-blind approach: suggests that we should categorize other people as individual persons rather than as members of a group - Multiculturalism: proposes that different cultural groups within a society should each maintain their own identity while simultaneously respecting all other groups Chapter 10 – Group Dynamics - Group dynamics: social psychological study of groups and group processes - Group: 2 or more persons who are interacting with one another and/or influencing one another - Social facilitation: refers to the effects of the presence of other people on individual performance o When a task is simple or well learned, the presence of other people tends to produce better performance o When a task is difficult or novel, the presence of other people tends to produce worse performance o These 2 findings reflect that the presence of other people is arousing, which increases the probability of the dominant responses: responses that are most likely to occur when the person is alone - Social loafing: refers to the reduction in effort that people often exhibit when working in a group where individual contributions are unidentifiable o Tends to increase with larger groups and with increased anonymity - Deindividuation: refers to a psychological state in which people lose their sense of personal identity and feel immersed in a group o Large groups and clothing can produce deindividuation o Increases socially undesirable behavior, but it is unclear whether this finding reflects that being in a group releases people from inhibitions, increases their responsiveness to external cues, or increases adherence to emerging group norms - Groupthink: refers to a way of thinking that can occur in decision-making group when pressure to agree leads to biased appraisal of options and poor decisions (bad decisions because of pressure to agree) o Hypothesized to occur mainly in groups that are high in group cohesiveness: refers to the combined intensity of all forces acting on group members to stay in a group o Produces symptoms:  Illusions, rationalizations and excessive risk taking - Group polarization: refers to the tendency for group discussion to strengthen the initial leanings of the members in a group (moving toward the majority view) o Occurs in juries – stronger for initial leanings toward acquittal than initial leanings toward convictional Leaders: - Kinds: o Transformational leaders: stimulate fundamental changes in the way group members view themselves and the group o Task leader  task achievement function o Socioemotional leader  group maintenance function - Major categories of functions in a group: o Task achievement function: involves all things necessary for group productivity o Group maintenance function: involves all of the things related to morale in the group Leader Function Definition Example Expert Teaches skills to members Dance instructor demonstrates movements to students Planner Plans how to achieve group Military officer plans attack goals Executive Assigns tasks to members Head chef assigns food preparation duties to kitchen staff in restaurant Policymaker Develops policies to guide Retail store manager group implements new commission-based salary for salespersons Performance appraiser Evaluates members‟ Supervisors provides formal performance evaluation of subordinate‟s job performance External representative Represents group to outside Political leader visits groups and individuals foreign country Motivator Motivates members to Football coach gives perform and remain in emotional pre-game pep group talk to players Arbitrator Resolves conflicts between Parent intervenes between members fighting children and suggests solution Exemplar Sets example and inspires Religious leader lives members exemplary life Counselor Helps members deal with University residence adviser personal problems counsels students on how to cope with first-year stressors Approach Description Example of variables Trait approach/Great Person Goal is to identify the Height, intelligence, theory personal characteristics that extraversion predict being chosen a leader or being a successful leader Situational approach Goal is to identify external, Seating position, external situational factors that threat, seniority influence being chosen a leader Interactionist approach Goal is to understand how Contingency model, task- dispositional and situational oriented vs. relationship- factors combine to oriented leaders influence who is chosen a leader or who makes an effective leader - Contingency model of leadership effectiveness predicts that task-oriented leaders will be more effective than relationship-oriented leaders in groups where the situation is either very favorable or very unfavorable for the leader, whereas relationship-oriented leaders will be more effective than task-oriented leaders when the situation is mixed for the leader - Acculturation: process of cultural and psychological change that takes place as a result of contact between two or more cultural groups and their individual members - Integration: refers to the goal of identifying with one‟s own cultural group and also with the alternative culture - Separation: refers to the goal of identifying only with one‟s own cultural group - Assimilation: refers to the goal of identifying only with the alternative culture - Marginalization: occurs when individuals lose their own cultural identity and do not feel connected to the alternative culture either - Dehumanization: extreme forms of intergroup violence, such as genocide, may be facilitated by perceptions that the target group is subhuman or inferior o Allows people to inflict pain and suffering without worrying about the morality of their behavior - Terrorism: refers to actual or threatened violence against civilians for alleged political purposes Reduce intergroup conflict - Communication and trust are very important - Conflictive ethos: an atmosphere of distrust and hatred o Created by longstanding disputes - Develop an ethos of peace: an atmosphere of acceptance and cooperation - Unilateral conciliatory initiatives: occur when one group takes a step to reduce conflict without any explicit demands for concessions by the other side; such actions can significantly ease intergroup conflict Chapter 11 – Aggression - Aggression: behavior that is intended to injure someone physically or psychologically - Violence: when aggression is intended to cause extreme injury Types Description Examples Aggression (all) Behavior that is intended to Punch, insult injure someone physically or psychologically Hostile aggression Aggression that results from Road rage, jealousy- negative emotional states induced assault such as anger, frustration, or hatred Instrumental aggression Aggression that is Armed robbery, parental motivated by goals other spanking (obtaining than harming the target something of value or teaching someone a lesson) Relational aggression Behavior that is intended to False gossip, ridicule damage another person‟s peer relationships - Relation exists between the male sex hormone testosterone and aggressive behavior - Frustration-aggression hypothesis: frustration always leads to some form of aggression and that frustration is the only cause of aggression - Displaced aggression: occurs when people cannot be aggressive toward the actual source of their frustration, so they direct aggression elsewhere o Catharsis: proposes that aggressive behavior releases people‟s pent-up frustration and reduces the likelihood of subsequent aggression o Excitation transfer model: aggressive behavior is often preceded by some form of emotional and physiological arousal  catharsis does not typically occur - Cognitive neoassociation model of aggression: based on the idea that aversive or unpleasant events activate the schemas for fight and flight, which themselves elicit the emotions of anger and fear o “Weapons effect”: participants are more likely to behave aggressively when aggressive cues are present in the environment Theory Description/Key Features Limitations/Outlook General aggression model Aggressive behavior is the A recent model that (GAM) result of a chain of provides a useful processes; this model framework for future integrates the other theories research Biological influences on Aggression is affected by Humans can inhibit or aggression hormones (testosterone) and suppress innate aggressive other physiological factors impulses Frustration-aggression Interference with obtaining Factors other than hypothesis desired goals causes frustration cause aggression aggression; catharsis does not occur Arousal from any source Does not address the most Excitation transfer model can produce or increase common causes of aggression aggression Social learning theory Individuals learn aggressive Focuses on how aggression responses by observing is learned rather than when other people aggression will occur Cognitive neoassociation Unpleasant events arouse Applies recent work in model negative emotions, which social cognition to cause aggression if aggression aggression cues in the situation activate fight and anger schemas Why are some people more aggressive? - (1) Narcissism: Individuals who are high in narcissism have inflated views of their self-worth and often respond to criticism with hostility and aggression – a response that has been labeled thre
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