[Psychology 2075] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (24 pages long)

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Published on 1 Dec 2016
Department
Western
Psychology 2075
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CH. 1 SEXUALITY IN PERSPECTIVE
The topic of sexuality is diverse, complex and fascinating
Why study sex?
oCuriosity motivates us to study sex
o We have practical reasons for wanting to learn about it
o hope that learning more about sex will help us with our concerns about our
sexual functioning
The study of sexuality is not confined to one discipline but rather is multidisciplinary
Sex and Gender
In some cases, sex refers to being male or female and sometimes it refers to sexual
behavior or reproduction
The term sex will be used in this book in context referring to sexual anatomy and sexual
behavior and the term gender will be used to refer to the state of being male or female
Alfred Kinsey defined sex as behavior that leads to orgasm
Only about one quarter of participants thought that oral sex resulting in orgasm would
be defined as sex
Sexual behavior: behavior that produces arousal and increases the chance of orgasm
Influences on sexuality
Religion
Ancient Greeks openly acknowledged both heterosexuality and homosexuality in their
society and explained the existence of the two in a myth in which the original humans
were double creatures with twice the normal number of limbs and organs. The gods
fearing the power of these creatures split them in half. Heterosexuals were thought to
have resulted from the splitting of the half male, half female; homosexuals from the
splitting of the double male/females.
Christians believed that “wet dreams” resulted from intercourse with tiny spiritual
creatures called incubi and succubi. Wet dreams, sexual dysfuntion, and sexual lust were
seen to be caused by witchcraft
Muslims have believed that sexual intercourse is one of the finest pleasures of life
reflecting the teachings of the great prophet Mohammed. Sexuality is regarded
primarily as a source of pleasure
Science
Dutch microscopist Anton van Leeuwenoek discovered sperm swimming in human
semen
1875 Oskar Hertwig first observed the fertilization of the egg by the sperm in sea
urchins
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Dr. Clelia Mosher was a physician who spent 30 years conducting a sec survey of
Victorian women in the United States. 80% of women said that they felt the desire for
sexual intercourse. 72% of women indicated that they experienced orgasm
Henry Havelock Ellis compiled of vast collection of information on sexuality including
medical and anthropological findings and case histories published in a series of volumes
entitled studies in the psychology of sex 1896
o Believe that women like men our sexual creatures. Believe that sexual
deviations from the norm are often harmless encouraged society to accept them
o considered the forerunner of modern sex research
Richard von Krafft-Ebing - pathological sexuality. Work tended to be neither objective
nor tolerant. Created the concept of sadism, masochism, and pedophilia. First to use
the terms heterosexuality and homosexuality.
Magnus Hirschfeld. Founded the first sex research Institute and administered the first
large-scale sex survey. Most of the information he amassed was destroyed by the Nazis.
Established the first journal devoted to the study of sexuality, established a marriage
counseling service, works for legal reforms, and gave advice on contraception and sex
problems. Special interest was homosexuality.
20th Century Alfred Kinsey - breakthroughs in the scientific understanding of sex from
massive surveys of human sexual behavior in the United States + William Masters and
Virginia Johnson’s investigations of sexual disorders and the physiology of sexual
response. Changed how people thought about sex and led to more open public
discussions of sexuality.
Margaret Mead and Bronislaw Malinowski collected data on sexual behavior in other
cultures.
The scientific study of sexuality tends to be an interdisciplinary effort by biologists,
psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and physicians
Media
in 2005 35% of programs showed some sexual behavior, up from 23% in nineteen 1998
only 2% of sexual scenes portray any sexual precautions
references to safer sex are increasing
47% of Canadians think there is too much sexually explicit programming on primetime
television
the average Canadian’s views about sexuality are likely to be much more influenced by
the mass media than by scientific finding
Communication theorists believe that the media can have three types of influence
oCultivation: the view that exposure to the mass media makes people think that
what they see there represents the mainstream of what really occurs
o Agenda setting: the idea that the media defines what is important and what is
not by which stories they cover
o social learning: the idea that the media provide role models whom we imitate
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