Psychology 2075 Study Guide - Gender Role, Strain Gauge, Visible Minority

19 views8 pages
Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
Gender and Sexuality 4/14/2013 12:51:00 PM
Chapter 13
Gender Roles and Stereotypes
Gender role a set of norms or culturally prescribed expectations
that define how people of one gender ought to behave
Stereotype a rigid set of beliefs about a group of people that
distinguishes those from others and is applied to all member of that
group
o Children as young as 6 are aware of male and female
stereotypes
o Heterosexuality is viewed as an important gender role where
the “feminine” women is expected to be sexually attracted to
men and vice versa
Gender Schema Theory
o A set of ideas that we associate with males and females which
influences how we process information
o It is difficult to change people’s stereotyped notions because
we tend to filter out information that contradicts stereotypes
Traditional Sexual Script (TSS) the heterosexual script is the most
pervasive in North America
o Scripts cognitive frameworks for how people are expected
to behave in social situations
o Aspects of TSS:
Men are oversexed (having strong sexual needs) and
women are undersexed
High sexual experience enhances men’s, but decreases
women’s perceived status (stud vs. slut)
Men are expected to be “sexperts” and to take
responsibility for their own and their female partner’s
sexual pleasure and orgasm
Men are supposed to be the initiators
Women are expected to be sexual gatekeepers and
place limits, so they don’t seem to sexually available
Socialization refers to the ways in which society conveys to the
individual its norms or expectations for their behaviour
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o Telling children what is expected of boys/men and
girls/women may be sufficient for role learning
o Self-socialization of children operates in two ways:
The more children identify with a particular gender, the
more they are motivated to incorporate attributes of
that gender into their self-concept
Seeing themselves as matching the stereotypes for
their own gender strengthens children’s gender identity
o Gender socialization comes from parents, peers and media
Children who watch more TV have more stereotyped
ideas about gender roles than children who view
Gender roles and ethnicity
o Ethnicity a group of people who share a common and
distinct racial, national, religious, linguistic or cultural origin
o 31-46% of people in Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver were
born outside of Canada
The gender roles of these communities reflect the
country in which they came from
o Acculturation the process of incorporation the beliefs and
customs of a new culture
o Ethnocultural Communities Facing AIDS examined sexuality
within 6 Canadian Ethnocultural communities
Groups were chosen based on ethnicity, not race
A number of cross cultural similarities were found
between roles
Men are expected to be the head of the family
Women are the caregivers
Dating is encouraged for sons, but not daughters
o South Asian communities
Second largest visible minority in Canada as of 2006
Religion, hard work, education and achievement are
seen as important
Men are given more privileges and women are passive
o Chinese community
Largest visible minority in Canada as of 2006
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Emphasizes responsibility of family and the community
over self-fulfillment and individualism
Man is the head of the house, women are caregivers
o English speaking Caribbean communities
Strong sense of family and community
Men provide for the family, while women are the
caregivers and work outside of the home
More restrictions on boys than on girls
o Aboriginal communities
Roles were originally more egalitarian than the
European culture during the same period in history
Today they have adapted more to the majority culture
of Canada
There are terms in two-thirds of the Aboriginal
languages spoken that refer to a third or fourth gender
beyond male and female
A man might be married to a two-spirit male, but
the marriage would not be considered
homosexual because the two are of different
genders
Gender Differences in Physiological Functioning
Gender differences in two areas:
o Aggressiveness
Males are generally more aggressive
Generally the same across all cultures
o Communications styles
Traditional roles favoured emotional expressiveness for
females and avoidance for males
There is a contemporary ethic of openness from both
males and females
Women are better than men at decoding non-verbal
cues like body language and facial expression
Gender Differences in Sexuality
Masturbation
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Document Summary

Gender role a set of norms or culturally prescribed expectations that define how people of one gender ought to behave. Traditional sexual script (tss) the heterosexual script is the most pervasive in north america: scripts cognitive frameworks for how people are expected to behave in social situations, aspects of tss: Men are oversexed (having strong sexual needs) and women are undersexed. High sexual experience enhances men"s, but decreases women"s perceived status (stud vs. slut) Men are expected to be sexperts and to take responsibility for their own and their female partner"s sexual pleasure and orgasm. Men are supposed to be the initiators. Women are expected to be sexual gatekeepers and place limits, so they don"t seem to sexually available. The more children identify with a particular gender, the more they are motivated to incorporate attributes of that gender into their self-concept.

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