Psychology 2075 Study Guide - Sexual Coercion, Paraphilia, Peer Group

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
Sexual Coercion 4/17/2013 12:52:00 PM
Chapter 16
Sexual Assault
Prior to 1983, the Criminal Code’s legal definition of rape was
heterosexual intercourse by a man with a woman who was not his
wife
o This limits rape to for heterosexual intercourse
o The assailant was defined as male and the victim as female
women could not be charged and men could not be victims
o Husbands could not be charged with raping their wives
meaning a woman couldn’t legally refuse her husband
o The victim’s prior sexual activities could be considered as
evidence of her consent\
In 1983 the Criminal Code was amended to include three gender-
neutral crimes of sexual assault that parallel the three levels of
assault:
o Sexual assault any nonconsensual sexual activity ranging
from unwanted touching to forced oral, anal or vaginal
intercourse, to sexual violence in which the victim is found
wounded or maimed or their life is endangered, or when the
victim is incapable of giving consent
o Sexual assault with a weapon causing serious injury, bodily
harm or endangering their life
o Aggravated sexual assault
Statistics
o In 1993, Statistics Canada conducted the Violence Against
Women Survey
39% of women reported having been sexually assaulted
by a man since the age of 16
The rate of sexual assault has been decreasing since
the 1990s, but only 8% of victims report the crime to
the police
Sexual assault of women by acquaintances
o Sexual assault by someone who is known to the victim, also
known as “date rape” is much more frequent than sexual
assault by a stranger
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o Research that examined sexual coercion in universities found
considerably higher numbers
48% of university women reported having experienced
coerced sexual activity involving pressure or force
o Factors that explain why sexually aggressive men misperceive
women’s communications:
Men tend to misperceive women’s warmth and
friendliness as indicating sexual interest
Sexually aggressive men are likely to have a “suspicious
schema” meaning that they generally believe that
women do not communicate honestly, particularly when
she communicates assertively that she’s rejecting them
o Date-rape drugs
Rohypnol (roofie) drug name for flunitrazepam,
causes drowsiness or sleep and the man assaults the
woman while she is asleep, and the drug causes the
woman not to remember it the next day
GHB (G) drug name for gamma hydroxyl butyrate,
produces similar effects to alcohol but can cause
hallucinations in larger doses and loss of consciousness
when mixed with alcohol
Ketamine (K, vitamin K) causes a combination of
amnesia and hallucinations
Ecstasy (E) and Foxy Methoxy are also date-rape drugs
Spousal sexual assault of women the sexual assault of a person
by his or her current or former martial or common-law spouse
The impact of sexual assault on women
o Emotional reactions
High levels of distress reach a peak three weeks after
the assault and continue at a high level for the next
month, followed by gradual improvement 2 or 3 months
after the assault
o Physical health
Cuts, bruises, vaginal pain or bleeding, irritation or
damage to the throat by forced oral sex, rectal bleeding
from forced anal sex, contraction of STIs, etc.
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o Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) long-term
psychological distress suffered by someone who has
experienced a terrifying event
Symptoms include re-experiencing the traumatic event
through flashbacks and nightmares, avoiding stimuli
associated with it (certain locations/activities),
hyperarousal (sleep difficulties, difficulty concentration,
irritability)
o Post-traumatic growth positive life changes and
psychological development following exposure to trauma
Causes of sexual assault against women
o Four major theoretical views of the nature of sexual assault:
Victim-precipitated sexual assault holds that sexual
assault is always caused by a women “asking for it”,
blame the victim
Psychopathology of sex offenders sexual assault is an
act committed by a psychologically disturbed man
Feminist feminist and learning theorists view sexual
assault as the product of gender-role socialization in our
culture which reinforces male aggression, gender
inequality is both the cause and result in this view
Social disorganization sociologists believe that crime
rates, including sexual assault rates, increase after
disruption to the social organization of a community,
under such conditions the community can’t enforce its
norms against the crime
o Research indicates a number of factors contribute to sexual
assault:
Cultural values the more hostility that men from a
culture express toward women on questionnaires, they
higher the rate of women reporting being sexually
coerced
Sexual scripts adolescents quickly learn society’s
expectations about dating and sex through culturally
transmitted sexual scripts, these scripts support sexual
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Document Summary

Statistics: in 1993, statistics canada conducted the violence against. 39% of women reported having been sexually assaulted by a man since the age of 16. The rate of sexual assault has been decreasing since the 1990s, but only 8% of victims report the crime to the police. 48% of university women reported having experienced coerced sexual activity involving pressure or force: factors that explain why sexually aggressive men misperceive women"s communications: Men tend to misperceive women"s warmth and friendliness as indicating sexual interest. Sexually aggressive men are likely to have a suspicious schema meaning that they generally believe that women do not communicate honestly, particularly when she communicates assertively that she"s rejecting them: date-rape drugs. Rohypnol (roofie) drug name for flunitrazepam, causes drowsiness or sleep and the man assaults the woman while she is asleep, and the drug causes the woman not to remember it the next day.

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