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Psychology 2135A/B Final: 2135A/B - Final Exam Cognitive Psych Study Notes (ch. 10-13)

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Western University
Psychology 2135A/B
Mark Holden

Chapter 10: Imagery Mental imagery: ability to recreate the sensory world in the absence of a physical stimulus Most focus on visual imagery; auditory (common), tactile, olfactory, gustatory imagery Philosophers debated whether thought requires imagery o Aristotle thought is impossible without imagery Behaviorism killed any serious thought about imagery o Claims its subjective, unproven mythological Dual Coding Theory Proposed by Allan Paivio (UWO) in 1960s Two systems of mentally representing the world: Verbal NonVerbal Nonverbal = mental imagery Referential connections: o verbal description mental image o OR mental image verbal description some things are more easily visualized (concrete vs. abstract) Encoding something in BOTH systems better memory Paired associates task: learn 16 pairs of unrelated words; given 1 word, whats 2 word? o 4 Groups: concreteconcrete (boattree) concreteabstract (jacketidea) abstractconcrete (virtuechair) abstractabstract (eventtheory) o Results: Learning is best with concrete words, worst with abstract words Easier to visualize easier to encode BOTH ways Note: CA is also better than AC Conceptual peg hypothesis: more concrete nouns act as better retrieval cues o BoatTree: giving you either one gives you a part of the combined image; can recreate verbal AND visual retrieval cues o From this, you can recreate it o DeceitTree vs. TreeDeceit: very weak visual retrieval cue makes it hard to recreate Visual Imagery Imagery Mental Distance Kosslyns mental scanning task: person creates a mental image of something, then scans it in their minds eye (e.g. memorize this picture) Ask questions about image features; features have diff distances between them Measured RT: farther one had to travel to detect the feature, the longer (slower) the RT Concluded: imagery is analogous to perception o Takes us longer to physically scan longer distances, too Alternative explanation: maybe it takes longer because we get distracted by other interesting things in between the two points New Experiment: 7 locations on island; 21 trips (several with nothing in between) Results: Takes more time to mentally travel longer distances The Imagery Debate The imagery debate: Is imagery the same (or at least very similar) to actually perceiving? A. Analogue Position Representations are depictive, use spatial code o Depictive: mental representations are something like physical images (are analogous) o Spatial code: preserves info about distancesdirections But, mental images arent exactly the same o Mental images will be missing details if not encoded B. Propositional Position Representations are abstract, use languagelike code o Languagelike: mental representations are NOT physical images but rather propositions abovebelow, leftright, in frontbehind, etc BUT, it is not actually a verbal description
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