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Study Guide

Psychology 2135A/B- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 59 pages long!)

59 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 2135A/B
Eriko Matsuki

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[Psychology 2135A/B] Comprehensive Summer guide including any lecture notes, textbook notes and exam guides.find more resources at The Scope of Cognitive Psychology • The Broad Role for Memory o All of our encounters with the world depend on supplementing your experience with knowledge that you bring to the situation • Amnesia and Memory Loss o Henry Molaison: could not develop new memories for 50 years after brain surgery • Removed hippocampus and amygdala o Without memory, there is no self • Scientific study of acquisition, retention, and use of knowledge The Cognitive Revolution • The Limits of Introspection o Ideas: cannot study mental world directly, must study mental world to understand behaviour o Wundt and Titchener: focus largely on study of conscious mental events (feelings, thoughts, perceptions, recollections) • Introspection: look within to observe and record content of our own mental lives and the sequence of our own experiences ▪ Needed specific vocabulary that would minimize interpretation • Forced to acknowledge that some thoughts are unconscious • Testability is unattainable, subjective • The Years of Behaviorism o Behavioural data is objective data • Beliefs, wishes, goals and expectations are not objective and should be avoided as internal entities o Behaviourist theory movement • Concerned with how behaviour changes in response to various stimuli (rewards vs. punishments) o Limits • The way people act and feel are guided by how they understand or interpret a situation, but the objective situation ▪ Subjective entities play pivotal role and must be considered • Stimuli that are physically different can have similar effects, stimuli that is physically similar can have different effects • The Roots of the Cognitive Revolution o Immanuel Kant (philosopher) • Transcendental method ("inference to best explanation") ▪ Begin with observable facts and then work backward from these observations o To study mental processes indirectly, we need to rely on the fact that these processes have visible consequences, measurable delays in response, performances that can be assessed for accuracy, and errors Research in Cognitive Psychology: The Diversity of Methods • Similar logic that underlies research, but very diverse methods • Working Memory: Some Initial Observations o Working memory: holds information in an easily accessible form so that information is instantly available when you need it • Hypothesized to have small capacity find more resources at
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