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Midterm 2221B Lecture Review.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2221B
Professor
Shelley Cross- Mellor
Semester
Winter

Description
Midterm 2221B Lecture Review (Ch. 1,3, 4) Biopsychology as a neuroscience But what is biopsychology, anyways? Dr. Oliver Saacs – famous scientist – wrote the man who mistook his wife for a hat He meets Jimmie G – the case of Jimmie G, the man frozen in time Was in the navy at 18 When talking about the navy believes that it is the present tense Gave mirror and did not know who was in the reflection Could not remember anything new Unable to form lasting memories Chronic alcohol ingestion Neurons and the Human Brain The Human Brain An amazingly intricate network of neurons About 3 pounds Neurons Cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals Specialized cells that are in the brain that make connections with one another Neuroscience The scientific study of the nervous system May prove to be the brains ultimate challenge: does the brain have the capacity to understand something as complex as itself? Biopsych is one aspect of neuroscience Defining Biopsychology The scientific study of the biology of behavior Four Major themes of this book Thinking creatively about biopsychology Clinical implications The evolutionary perspective Neuroplasticity Biopsychology is empirical (have to see it to believe it) Knowledge acquired through observation Biopsychologists must be skeptical and think critically What is the evidence? How was it collect? Psych conclusions based on research not tradition or common sense Biological Perspective: The beginning Mind-body dualism Mind: spiritual entity Not subject to physical laws Rene Descartes Rejected by most neuroscientists Monism Mental events are a product of physical events Can be studies E.g chemical reaction in the brain produce emotion, decisions, etc. Beginning of Brain-Behaviour connection In support of monism Luigi Galvani Severed leg of frog- moved when electrical current was passed through it i.e discovered electrical nature of nerve conduction understand physiological properties of the brain Localization Issue Idea that specific areas of the brain carry out specific functions Phineas Gage – accident, pole through skull, cognitive abilities remained in tact but his personality changed dramatically – shows that one area might be involved for a particular function Broca’s Area – store patients couldn’t produce language – damage to particular area – responsible for speech production – Broca’s Area Unfortunately this idea also lead way for phrenology – idea that localization is taken too far – that personality characteristics can be assessed based on the bumps on your head History of Biopsychology The organization of behavior Donald O Hebb (1949) – when biopsychology began – canadian psychologist Key factor in biopsychology’s dev’t into a major neuroscientific discipline Proposed that psychological phenomena might be produced by brain activity Helped discredit notion that psychological functions are too complex to be derived from physiological activities Based theory on expts with humans, lab animals, case studies, observations of his own daily life Disciplines of Neuroscience that are relevant to biopsychology Neuroscience Biopsychology Neuroanatomy Structure of the nervous system Neurochemistry Chemical bases of neural activity Neuroendocrinology Interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system Neuropathology Nervous system disorders Neuropharmacology Effects of drugs on neural activity Neurophysiology Functions and activities of the nervous system Biopsychological Research Three dimensions along which biopsychological research varies: Subjects Human Nonhuman Methods Experiments (researcher manipulates variable) Nonexperiments (case studies) Types of research Pure Applied Advantages of Human and Nonhuman Subjects Human subjects Can learn about human behavior and human brain We can follow instructions and can report their subjective experiences Can study more complex things like about personality Voluntary responses Cheaper to work with humans Nonhuman subjects Simpler brains make it more likely that brain behavior interactions will be revealed Insights arise from the comparative approach- making comparisons with other species There are fewer ethical restrictions More expensive to work with animals- have to buy them, hire technicians and vets, need equipment etc. Animals can’t drop out of the study Ethics in Animal Research- Canada Funding agencies (e.g. NSERC; CIHR; SSHRC) Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) University Animal Care Committee (ACVS) Provide humane care & treatment, minimize pain and discomfort, avoid unnecessary use of experimental animals Types of Studies in Biopsych Experiments or Non-experiments Differ on ONE factor Control (manipulation) of variables Experiment  involve the manipulation of variables Non-experiments  the researcher does not control the variables of interest Examples: Quasi-experimental studies (people are exposed to real life conditions) Case studies (individual has unique characteristic, study in-depth) Experiments Researcher compares two or more different conditions of the variable of interest If different subjects are tested in each condition[Symbol] Between subjects design If same subjects  Within subjects design Difference between the conditions = independent variable Variable measured by researcher to determine if there is an effect of different conditions = dependent variable Confounded Variables Unintended differences between conditions that can influence the dependent variable Can be difficult to eliminate Can make experiments difficult to interpret How much of the effect of the DV caused by IV or the confounded variable? Hard to tell how much of the effect on the DV caused by IV caused by the confounded variable Non-experiments Quasi-experimental studies Studies groups of subjects exposed to conditions in the real world Not real experiments (potential confounded variables have not been controlled) E.g. study 100 alcoholics vs 100 non-drinkers- find poorer performance on perceptual, motor, cognitive tasks etc. in alcoholics Case studies Focus on a single case or subject (e.g. Jimmie G) Usually more in-depth than other approaches Good source of testable hypotheses Major problem is generalizability: the degree to which results can be applied to other cases Pure and Applied Research Pure research: Conducted for the purpose of acquiring knowledge Needed in order to do applied research Applied research: Intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind Solve real world problems- must do pure research first Many research projects have elements of both approaches Six Major Divisions of Biopsychology Psychophysiology Comparative psychology Cognitive neuroscience Psycho-pharmacology Physiological psychology Neuro-psychology Psychophysiology Studies the relation between physiological activity and psychological processes in human subjects Typically uses noninvasive procedures (e.g. electroencephalogram, measures of eye movement) Physiological Psychology Division that studies the neural mechanisms of behavior Uses direct manipulation of the brain in controlled experiments (e.g. surgical and electrical procedures) Subjects usually laboratory animals Strong focus on research pure research Psychopharmacology Similar to physiological psychology Focuses on the manipulation of neural activity and behavior with drugs Substantial portion of research is applied Neuropsychology Studies the psychological effects of brain damage in human patients Cannot be studied in humans by experimentation; focuses on case studies and quasi-experimental studies Has focused on cerebral cortex, since it is most likely to be damaged by accident or surgery Most applied of the biopsychological sub-disciplines Comparative Psychology Deals with biology of behavior Compares different species to understand evolution, genetics, and adaptiveness of behavior Uses laboratory and/or ethological research Areas of research that often employ comparative analysis: Evolutionary psychology Behavioral genetics Cognitive Neuroscience Newest division of biopsychology Focuses on the neural bases of cognition Often employs human subjects Key methods are functional brain imaging techniques (fMRI) Activity (application type of questions) 1. Have shown that alcohol-induced brain damage reduces memory for recent events[Symbol] Neuropsychology 2. Have shown acetylcholine agonists help symptoms in the early stages of Alzheimer’s[Symbol] Psychopharmacology 3. Have shown that when the amygdala is lesioned – cats react fearfully to all objects[Symbol] Physiological Psychology 4. Have shown the prefrontal cortex shows increased activation during inhibition tasks[Symbol] Cognitive Neuroscience 5. Have shown migrating birds have bigger hippocampi than non- migrating birds[Symbol] Comparative Psychology 6. Have shown prosopagnosics show implicit recognition of familiar faces through galvanic skin conductance[Symbol] Psychophysiology Converging Operations Look at a questions from a variety of different perspectives Questions rarely resolved by a single approach Strengths of multiple approaches compensate for weakness of others Example: Korsakoff’s syndrome Characterized by severe memory loss Most commonly seen in alcoholics Initially believed to be a direct consequence of the toxic effects of alcohol on the brain Neuropsychology Alcoholic patients with Korsakoff’s syndrome (i.e. Jimmie G) Also seen in malnourished persons with little or no alcohol Physiological psychology Thiamine-deficient rats exhibit memory deficits Alcohol accelerates development of brain damage in thiamine-deficient rats By exploring the possible causes of Korsakoff’s syndrome using multiple approaches, or converging operations, findings are more accurate Korsakoff’s syndrome is the result of thiamine deficiency, but the damage is accelerated by alcohol Knowing this- how would you treat alcoholics? Today- alcoholics counseled to stop drinking, also treated with massive doses of thiamine to limit further brain damage 2 B.S. Examples (Bad Science) Why Study BS? We can learn from mistakes Biopsychologists can try to avoid these in their work It will make you a better consumer of scientific research- critical thinking! Subject: Jose Delgado Claimed a charging bull could be tamed using stimulation of its caudate nucleus- common center of the brain- BS Analysis: Exciting account reported in popular press Many possible alternative explanations the bull stopped such as pain, paralysis, poor vision Morgan’s Canon: give precedence to the simplest interpretation for a behavioral observation Subject: Egas Moniz Developed the prefrontal lobotomy, cutting connections between the prefrontal lobes and the rest of the brain to treat mental illness- BS Analysis: Adoption for human therapy based largely on study of a single chimpanzee (Becky) Inadequate postoperative evaluation of human patients Procedure can produce undesirable side effects: amorality, lack of foresight, emotional unresponsiveness, epilepsy, urinary incontinence The Prefrontal Lobotomy The leucotome was inserted six times into the patent’s brain with the cutting wire retracted After each insertion, the cutting wire was extruded and the leucotome rotated to cut out a core of tissue Chapter 3 – The anatomy of the Nervous system the systems, structures and cells that make up your nervous system How is it organized? What is the CNS designed (evolved) to do? Bring info from the senses and the internal organs Manipulate - Assess, process, interpret, relay information Output Behaviour Simplistic, but having an organizational framework helps Divisions of the Nervous system General layout of the nervous system 1. Central Nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) located outside of the skull and spine serves to bring information into the CAN and carry signals out of the CNS Somatic NS – Info from sense organs to CNS, voluntary muscle control Autonomic NS – controls heart, intestines, etc., involuntary muscles Peripheral Nervous System Somatic – interacts with external environment Afferent nerves – sensory to CNS Efferent nerves – motor to CNS Autonomic Nervous System – regulates body’s internal environment Afferent nerves (sensory from internal organs to CNS) Efferent nerves – 2 kinds Sympathetic – fight or flight Close to spinal cord Thoractic and lumbar Second stage neruons are far from the target organ Parasympathetic – rest & relaxation Synapse far from spinal cord Cranial and sacral Second stage neurons are near the target organ They also differ in their distance from synapse All are two-stage neural paths – neuron exits CNS synapses on a second-stage neuron before the target organ Cranial Nerves Most nerves from PNS project from spinal cord – but CN project from the brain Located on ventral surface Numbered 1-X-11, rostrally to caudally Most severe sensory and motor functions of the head and neck (except X) b/c of functions & locations specific – can provide clues about tumors and other pathologies I – Olfactory nerve II- Optic – vision III - Oculomotor – eye movements, control of pupil, lens and tears IV- Trochlear – eye movements V- Trigeminal – facial sensations, chewing VI – Abducens – eye movements VII – Facial – facial movements, salivary glands, taste VIII – Vestibulo-cochlear nerve – acoustic branch, vestibular branch – important for balance IX Glossopharyngeal – throat muscles, salivary glands, taste X – Vagus – control and sensation of internal thoracic and abdominal viscera such as bronchioles, heart and stomach - actions throughout the rest of the internal organs XI – Spinal Accessory – head and neck muscles – more grose movements of the head and neck XII – Hypoglossal – tongue – one of the largest cranical nerves Oh, oh, oh, to touch and feel very good velvet, ahhh heaven Protecting the Brain 1. Protection from physical dangers a. Skull b. Meninges c. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 2. Protection from chemical dangers blood-brain barriers (BBB) Meninges and CSF CNS- covered by three meninges and encased in bone (skull or spinal cord) Dura mater – tough outer membrane Arachnoid membrane – weblike (blood vessels – vascularized) Pia mater – adheres to CNS surface “gentle mother” Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Fluid serves as cush
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