Psychology 2310A/B Study Guide - Epigenetics, Etiology, Bulimia Nervosa

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Abnormal Psychology: Tutorial Notes for Final Exam
Tutorial Nine: Mood Disorders
Video
Woman at first in depressed state, hearing voices + thinking devil is out to get her
oTalked an entire verse of the carpenters song as if it were her own words (top of
the world)
Comes back three days later in a manic state, says she beat up her husband, thinks she is
on a mission for god
Beck’s Cognitive Model
“I’m terrible, things around me are terrible, it wont get better”
Cognitive Distortions & Errors
All-or-nothing thinking One thing happens, such as being late for work, and suddenly its
all bad
Overgeneralization One bad thing happened today, so today was a bad day
Jumping to conclusionsMind reading: didn’t get a text back, so they hate me
Catastrophizing (magnification)Thinking where one thing leads to another. A small error
is very serious and it is inevitable
“Should” statementsfeelings of guilt towards yourself, anger towards others, etc
Emotional reasoningyou think your emotions reflect reality
Leads to depressive cognitive triad self, world, future
Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Depression
Changing behaviours and changing thoughts effects moods
Behavioral interventions – behavioral activation
oRestore and enhance functioning
oCounteract withdrawal tendencies
oIncrease interest and pleasure
Cognitive interventions
oIdentify cognitive distortions
oMonitor negative thoughts write down “oh shit” moments
oExamine the evidence
oChange core beliefs
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Prevention of relapse
oDevelop strategies for dealing with slip ups in the future
oWhat caused the depression and what made it get worse
Interpersonal Factors in Depression
Attachment theory
oSecure early attachment predicts later emotional functioning
oWe form an attachment with our primary care giver in childhood
oSecurely attached people usually function better
Marriage and interpersonal relationships
oMarital dissatisfactions strongly related to depression
Social support
oLack of social support is related to depression
oConflicts with close others, family
Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
Theory: Depression is due to problems in relationships with others
Grief, relationship loss death, breakup, divorce, etc
Interpersonal role disputes conflicts with others (parents, partner, etc)
Role transitions getting married, moving out, having children, etc
Interpersonal skills deficits problems with forming relationships, dealing with conflict,
etc (may go back to problems as a child with family members)
Relative Success of Medication and Cognitive Therapy with Severely Depressed Patients
Short term: both are equally effective
Survival Rates – Cognitive Therapy vs. ADM
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People who received cognitive therapy had a relapse rate of 25%
People who were given the medication regularly, had a relapse rate of 59%
People who were given a placebo had a relapse rate of 74%
The cumulative success of drug therapy and cognitive therapy
Relapse is lower for cognitive therapy than drug therapy
Higher drop out rates in drug therapy
Direct and Cumulative Costs of CT versus ADM
Cognitive therapy is like outright buying a car, expensive at first but worth it in the end
With drug administration, its like leasing a car, less expensive at first, but more costly in the long
run
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