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[Psychology 2320A/B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (20 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Psychology 2320A/B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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The$Developmental$Psychopathology$Perspective$on$Abnormal$Child$Psychology
Normal$and$abnormal$behaviour$are$(almost$always)$on$a$shared$continuum
Developmental+pathways
Life$course$perspective$on$disorder
Simple+phobias: fears$that$a$child$outgrows$throughout$time$that$
usually$do$not$require$treatment
§
Precursors$(predictors)$and$consequences$of$disorder
§
Resilience is$as$important$as$understanding$vulnerability
See$people$that$grow$up$in$not$so$healthy$environments$but$still$end$up$
okay$
Find$out$how$to$help$kids$that$are$not$resilient$by$looking$at$those$who$
are
Holistic+views+of+children
Cannot$necessarily$focus$on$the$problem$behaviour$to$fully$understand$or$
treat$a$child$with$a$disorder
Ex.$Developmental$stage$of$the$child;$factor$in$cultural$perspectives$in$
understanding$behaviour
Directedness+of+children
the$environment/parenting$affect$development$but$kids$are$also$active$in$
agents$in$shaping$their$own$environments;$cannot$view$children$as$
passive$in$shaping$the$environment
Lawfulness+of+behaviour
We$do$not$expect$kids$to$act$as$adults$but$believe$that$the$development$
should$be$lawful$(able$to$predict$behaviours$over$time)
Homotypic+continuity: behaviour$(i.e.,$disorder)$remains$stable$in$form$over$
time
E.g.,$adolescent$depression$predicts$depression$in$adulthood
Heterotypic+continuity: behaviour$(i.e.,$disorder)$changes$its$form$across$time
E.g.,$childhood$anxiety$predicts$depression$in$adolescence
Equifinality:
There$are$multiple$pathways$to$getting$one$final$outcome
!"#$%&'&(%)*+,
Tuesday,$ December$ 13,$2016
5:40$PM
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There$are$multiple$pathways$to$getting$one$final$outcome
Ex.,$Early$childhood$maltreatment$predict$developing$depression;$genetics$
can$predict$developing$depression
Multifinality:
Means$converse$of$equifinality;$from$the$same$initial$starting$point$end$up$
with$different$outcomes
Ex.,$children$of$depressed$mothers$have$a$risk$for$depression,$but$don't$all$
develop$depression$or$develop$a$different$psychological$disorder
What$constitutes$abnormality?
Statistical
"abnormal"$implies$away$from$the$norm$or$average
"normal"$implies$no$significant$deviation$from$average
Many$traits$are$distributed$on$a$normal$bell$shaped$curve
Those$falling$at$the$extremes$are$considered$statistically$abnormal
Problems+with+statistical+approach
Some$extremes$are$adaptive/not$harmful
Distributions$are$continuous,$so$divisions$are$arbitrary
Does$not$tell$us$what$traits$to$measure$to$decide$what$is$abnormal
Personal+distress/impairment
If$you$experience$distress$or$impairment,$you$have$a$disorder
Problems:
Fails$to$consider$effects$of$behaviour$on$other$people
§
Could$pathologize$normal$emotional$reactions
§
Depends$on$insight
§
Social+nonconformity
abnormality$defined$by$failure$to$conform$to$social$standards
Problems:
Cultural$relativity
§
Changing$social$standards
§
Summary
Many$definitions$are$possible
No$single$definition$is$perfect
All$just$discussed$are$used$to$some$extent,$directly$or$indirectly,$in$the$
application$of$DSM$diagnoses
DSM-5 =$how$we$operationalize$abnormality/disorder$for$research$
and$practice
§
Etiological$Theories$of$Disorder
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