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[Psychology 2320A/B] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (71 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 2320A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Abnormal Child Psychology Jan 10th
The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Psychology
Normal and abnormal behaviour almost always on shared continuum
o The continuum of behaviour tends to be important
Developmental Psychopathology
o How early factors develop into behaviour/disorder over time
Stranger approach
o 3 year olds left alone, guy research assistant comes in and talks to child while
walking closer
Box empty
o Give child wrapped box and say you have done such a good job today we got you
a present and give the child the present and there is nothing in the box
o Meant to get at frustration, anger, sadness
Developmental pathways
o Life course perspective on disorder
o Precursors and consequences of disorders
Resilience is as important as understanding vulnerability
o People who come from less advantageous environments and they still come out
ok
o Help us uderstad too ho e a help those that are’t resiliet
Not uncommon for children struggling with depression, etc to continue struggling with
that up into adulthood
Eg: kids who show high levels fearfulness
o High risk for developing anxiety disorder
Simple phobias
o Not uncommon
o Most kids gro out of it ad do’t eed treatet
Holistic views of children
o Concept you cant just focus on the problem behaviour in order to fully
understand or treat
o Look at things like culture
Directedness of children
o How kids shape environment and are active agents of their environment
Lawfulness of behaviour
o We assume development of behaviour will be lawful
o So researchers can identify predictors of behaviour over time and some degree
of continuity overtime
o If ehaiour as’t laful o poit i studig it
o Capturing notion that we can understand how behaviour develops in a
systematic way over time
Homotypic continuity: behaviour (i.e., disorder) remains stable in form over time
o E.g., adolescent depression predicts depression in adulthood
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Heterotypic continuity: behaviour (i.e., disorder) changes its form across time
o E.g., childhood anxiety predicts depression in adolescence
o Can find systematic and lawful relationships between behaviours although
ehaiour does’t look the eat sae
o Heterotypic continuity between disorders (anxiety and depression)
Equifinality
o Idea multiple pathways to reaching similar final outcome
o Idea that for depression things like early childhood maltreatment predicts people
developing depression, genetics can predict, etc
Multifinality
o Converse of equifinality
o From same initial starting point one can reach two diverse outcomes
o A lot of the time things we identify as a risk factor predict multiple child
outcomes
Children of depressed moms are at risk of developing depression
But do’t all
Some develop instead a different psychological disorder
Defining and Operationalizing Disorder Behaviour
Involves: distress, unusual behaviour
What Constitutes Abnormality?
- Statistical
o Aoral iplies aa fro or or aerage
o Noral iplies o significant deviation from average
near the norm
o many traits are distributed on a normal bell shaped curve
o those falling at the extremes are considered statistically abnormal
- Problems with statistical approach
o Some extremes are adaptive and not harmful
o Distributions are continuous, so divisions are arbitrary
o Does’t tell us hat traits to easure to deide hat is aoral
- Personal distress or impairment
o If you experience distress or impairment, you have a disorder
- Problems
o Fails to consider effects of behaviour on other people
o Could pathologize normal emotional reactions
o Depends on insight
- Social nonconformity: abnormality defined by failure to conform to social standards
- Problems
o Cultural relativity
o Changing social standards
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