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Psychology 2320A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 38 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 2320A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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PSYCH 2320 (Lec1 : The Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Abnormal Child
Psychology) 5/1/17
Normal and abnormal behavior are (almost always) on a shared continuum
Developmental pathways
Life course perspective on disorder
Precursors and consequences of disorder
Resilience is as important as understanding vulnerability
Holistic views of children
Directedness of children
Lawfulness of behavior
Homotypic continuity: behavior (i.e., disorder) remains stable in form over time
E.g., adolescent depression predicts depression in adulthood
Heterotypic continuity: behavior (i.e., disorder) changes its form across time
E.g., childhood anxiety predicts depression in adolescence.
How do we decide whether someone has a disorder?
I enjoy wearing diapers and being treated like a toddler. My wife has no problem
changing my wet or soiled diapers, bathing me, feeding me, or giving me my bottle
and putting me down for a nap. I work in sales and have no problem acting like an
adult, though I wear diapers 24 hours a day.
My feet or arms cannot hang over the edge of the bed because the monsters will
get them. Sometimes I have to take a running leap from the bedroom door to my
bed because they’ll get me while I’m standing there. Many times, in the middle of
the night, my arm or leg will fall over the side, and I’ll think to myself, “This is
ridiculous, I’m 32 years old, and there aren’t any monsters under the bed. But I
have to do it or I can’t get back to sleep.
When I enter an elevator, I take a deep breath and hold it during the entire ride. I
pray I don’t meet anyone I know so I won’t be forced to exhale, start a
conversation, and inhale everyone's germs.
What constitutes abnormality?
Statistical
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Abnormal implies away from the norm or average
Normal implies no significant deviation from average
Many traits are distributed on a normal bell shaped curve
Those falling at the extremes are considered statistically abnormal
Problems w statistical approach:
Some extremes are adaptive/not harmful
Distributions are continuous, so divisions are arbitrary
Does not tell us what traits to measure to decide what is abnormal
Personal Distress/impairment
If you experience distress or impairment, you have a disorder
Problems
Fails to consider effects of behavior on other people
Could pathologize normal emotional reactions
Depends on insight
Social nonconformity: abnormality defined by failure to conform to social standards
Problems
Cultural relativity
Changing social standards
Etiological theories of disorder
Explain the origin of abnormal behavior
Good theories yield hypotheses that can be tested
i.e., either supported or falsified
the theory is either supported, modified, or rejected
Theories are more likely to drop out of favor than they are to be rejected
There are no monocausal theories of anything that are correct
Biological theories
Genetic (behavioral and molecular)
Brain structure and function
Different areas of the brain regulate different functions and behaviors
Neurotransmitter systems
Hormonal (e.g., cortisol)
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