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2014 Child Psych MIDTERM 1 Summary

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Western University
Psychology 2320A/B
Jeff St.Pierre

1INTRODUCTIONRESEARCH STUDIES in abnrm child psychology seek to1Define normalabnrm behavior for chldr of different ages sexesethniccultural backgrounds2Identify the casescorrelates of abnrm behavior3Make predictions about longterm outcomes4Developevaluate methods for treatment or preventionFeatures that DISTINGUISH childadolc disorders1When adults seek services for chldr it is not often clear whose problem it is2Many childadolc problems involve a failure to show expected developmental progress3Many problem behaviors shown by chldryouths are not entirely abnrm4Interventions for chldradolescents are often intended to promote further dvlpmt rather than merely to restore a previous level of functioningHISTORICAL VIEWSBREAKTHROUGHSHISTORY1Ancient GreekRoman view aThe disabled were an economic burdensocial embarrassment to be scorned abandoned or put to death2Before 18th century aChldrs MHPs were ignoredbChldr were subjected to harsh treatment due to beliefs that they would die were possessed or were parents propertyiMassachusetts Stubborn Child Act of 16543By end of 18th century aInterest in abnrm child behavior surfaced although strong church influence attributed behaviors to chldrs uncivilizedprovocative nature4John Locke 17th century believed in indv rightsaBelieved chldr should be raised with thoughtcare not indiffharsh treatmentchldr are emotionally sensitive need education5JeanMarc Itard 19th century took care of Victor the wild boyaFocused on the care treatmenttraining of mental defectives6Leta Hollingworth chldrs probs were due to bad trtmt by adultspoor intell challengeaDistinguished indv with mental retardation imbeciles from those with psychiatric disorders lunatics7Benjamin RushaChldr are incapable of adultlike insanity so those with normal cognitive abilities but disturbing behavior suffer from moral insanity8REVOLUTION led by 2 thingsaAdvances in general medicinemore humane treatmentsiDorothea Dix opened mental trtmt hospitals for troubled youthsbAdoption of Locke philosophy chil need thoughtcareEARLY BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES1Treatment of infectious diseases late 19th century inc belief of disease as biol problemaEarly attempts at biological explanations were highly biased locating cause within indv child or adult 2Clifford Beers efforts led to detectionintervention 3Intervention was limited to the most visible disorders 4Belief that devl of disorders could not be influenced by treatment or learning caused a return to custodial carepunishment of behaviors5The view of mental disorders as diseases led to fear of contaminationaLed to eugenics sterilizationsegregation institutionalizationEARLY PSYCHL ATTRIBUTES1Psychl influences rooted in early 20th century when attention was drawn to formulating a taxonomy of illnesses2PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORYaFreud linked mental disorders to childhood expsexplored their dvlpmt with a focus on the interaction of developmentalsituational processesbIndv can be helpedif given proper environ therapy or bothcDespite criticismslack of empirical validation emphasis on interconnection bw chldrs normalabnrm dvlpmt is still used as a model3BEHAVIORISMaLaid the foundation for empirical study of how abnrm behavior developscan be treated through conditioning bPavlovs research on classical conditioning cWatsons studies on elimination of chldrs fearstheory of emotionsiNever hugkiss chldriiLittle Albert predictioncontrol on human behaviorEVOLVING FORMS OF TREATMENT119301950 psychodynamic approaches still dominantaMost chldr with intellectual or mental disorders were institutionalized219451965 the number of chldr in institutions DEC while the number of chldr in foster caregroup homes INCaSpitz studies regarding the harmful impact of institutional life on chldrs growthdvlpmt31950s1960s behavior therapy was the systematic approach to treatment of childfamily disorders4Behavior therapy has continued to expand in scopehas emerged as a prominent form of therapyPROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION1IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act aFreeappropriate public edu for chldr with special needs in the least restrictive envirbEach child must be assessed with culturally appropriate testscIndividualized education program IEP for each child2United Nations General Assembly 2007 adopted a new convention to protect the rights of persons with disabilitiesWHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOUR IN KIDS1Childhood disorders are accompanied by various layers of abnrm behavior or dvlpmt ranging from the more visible to the more subtle to the more hidden2Must understand chldrs indv strengthsabilities in order to assist them in healthy adaptation3Must also be sensitive to each childs stage of dvlpmt 4Disorders are commonly viewed as deviancies from normal despite arbitrary boundaries bw normalabnrm functioningDEFINING PSYCHL DISORDERS1Traditionally defined as patterns of behavioral cognitive emotional or physical symptoms assc with one or more of the following aDistressDisabilityIncreased risk for further suffering or harm2Excludes circumstances where reactions are expectedappropriate as defined by ones cultural background 3Describes behaviors NOT causes4Labels describe behavior NOT people
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