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Midterm

Psychology 2320A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, Anti-Social Behaviour


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2320A/B
Professor
Elizabeth Hayden
Study Guide
Midterm

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder
& Conduct Disorder
ODD and CD: Classification
DSM-5: Oppositional Defiant Disorder
oAngry/defiant/vindictive behavior lasting at least 6 months –
developmentally excessive pattern
Losing temper, argumentative, defiant, blames others, touchy,
angry
Behaviors must be more frequent than normative for age – they are
supposed to decline after a certain age
Rated for severity – mild, moderate, or severe
Based on pervasiveness of symptoms – degree to which
they exhibit symptoms in multiple domains
Extremely noncompliant kids with poor emotional control –
negativistic, disobedient, hostile toward authority
Come across as annoying, spiteful, angry
oValidity is disputed: characterizes many preschoolers and teens to some
extent
oPoor parent-child fit?
Poorly equipped to manage a child behavioral problems – patience,
managing their own affect
DSM-5: Conduct Disorder
oAntisocial behavior as well.
oPersistent & repetitive pattern of violating norms and rules lasting at least
twelve months, including:
Aggression to people/animals
Destruction of property
Deceitfulness or theft (e.g., “cons” others)
Serious violation of rules (e.g., truancy, staying out all night)

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Callous-unemotional specifier new to DSM-5
Important in differentiating children who have CD, who are at
risk for poor outcomes – because of their callous-
unemotional personality
Categories vs. Dimensions
No qualitative differences (i.e., not categorical in nature)
The more symptoms, the poorer your outcome
oHow much of it you have predicts your outcomes
Frick et al. (1993) meta-analysis of factor analyses of antisocial/disruptive child
behavior
Dimensions suggesting why behaviors go together or are correlated (factor
analyses)
Dimension of destructive vs
non-destructive and covert vs
overt
oFour quadrants
Property
violations
Aggression
Status violations
(kids do things
that are kind of alright for adults to do)
Oppositional
Related Constructs
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)
oDiagnosed in adults only
oChildren’s personalities are too plastic, they’re still changing and
developing
Psychopathy
oTrait capturing individual differences in boldness, disinhibition, and
meanness
oStudied in adults, mostly

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Early predictors of maladjustment
oNot one universally agreed upon definition
Callous-unemotional traits
oSee table in text
oEarly child personality precursors of ASPD and psychopathy
ODD and CD: Prevalence and Correlates
Prevalence of ODD: varies widely across studies, median estimate of 12%
Prevalence of CD: 8%
Antisocial behavior is associated with minority status, but this due to low SES
oDue to low socio-economic status
oCostello et al. (2003)
By reducing socioeconomic status you are able to manipulate the
prevalence
Lower (but normal) intelligence a prospective predictor
oEarly-onset associated with lower IQ
Both disorders associated with male sex
oODD shows less of a gender difference than CD
oSex difference is decreasing in recent cohorts
o
ODD and CD: Course and Sex Differences
Ave age of onset of CD symptoms = 9 years
oEarly-onset CD particularly important predictor of prognosis
oEarly onset is worse, starting early means staying there later
Ave age of ODD onset= 8 years
Early-emerging traits (activity level, noncompliance, “difficult” temperament)
predict subsequent conduct problems
oSex differences in these risks emerge during preschool years (boys
become more negative; active) and remain stable until adolescence
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