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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2550A/B
Professor
Stephen Erdle
Semester
Winter

Description
PERSONALITY EXAM CHAPTER 1 SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF PERSONALITY y Personality thoughts feelings and behaviours that are distinctive and persist across time and situations y A good personality theory should explain classify and optimize personality y 4 assumptions of science o Determinism all events due to nature laws o Discoverability all laws that govern human behaviour can be discovered o Scientific Method observation and experimentation distinguishes psychology from a novelist o Human Benefit the pursuit of science will lead to knowledge that will benefit human understanding of personality y 6 methods of science o Test ideas o Hypothesiso Operationism o Observation o Precise description o Logic inductiondeduction y Higherorder ingredients of science o Experimentation independentdependent variables o Quantification correlational research no manipulationy 4 types of data o S data self report data questionnaires etcObjective fixed response answersProjective unconscious motives through ambiguous stimuli o L data life data university transcript etc o O data observer reports someone else rating your personality o B data behavioural data direct observation Can be observed through S dataInvolved physiological data pulse etc y 2 types of analyses o Ideographic focus on the individual clinical o Nomothetic focus on a group of people used to verify ideographic observations y 2 types of significance o Statistical results of probability are due to chance P05 o Practicalof overlap y Issues in personality theory o Personsituation debateStrong situation situation controls behaviour stop signWeak situation behaviour controls situationno situational cues yield signReciprocal determinism Bandura personality situation and behaviour influence each other o Naturenurture debateGeneenvironment correlation genetics affect personality through the environment2 types y Active genes make you seek environments that influence behaviour y Reactive certain genes make you react to the behaviour CHAPTER 2 PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORYFREUD y First to use scientific method to test hypotheses y Used positivism to look at psychological disorders y Psychic determinism our behaviours are determined by psychological processesenergy actuallyneuronal functioningy Hypnotismtalking curefree association y Seduction theory neurotics women were maladjusted because of early childhood sexual abuse y Fantasy theory sexual fantasies in childhood lead to anxiety in adulthood y Everyone has some sort of repressed sexual conflict but those with a lot form hysteria CHAPTER 3 PSYCHOANALYSISFREUD y 3 levels of consciousness o Consciousaware of o Preconscious can be made aware of o Unconscious never aware of only through psychoanalysis y 2 instincts o Life instincts eros hungersexual instincts o Death instincts thanatos results in aggressiveness y 3 parts of the mind o Id pleasure principle unconsciouso Ego mediator partially conscious o Superego rules of morality partially consciousEgo ideal internalized rewards from childhoodConscience internalized punishments from childhood y Children develop personality through psychosexual stages o Oral 01 id developssucking dependent biting sarcastic o Anal 13 ego developsexpulsive messiness retentive excessive cleanliness o Phallic 35 superego developsElectraOedipal complexes promiscuity o Latency 513 superego continues to growchildren play with same sex o Genital 13 resolved complexessexuality in sociallyappropriate ways y 3 types of maladjustment o Reality realistic fear in environmento Neurotic fear of id impulses going out of control o Moral fear of superego punishing you for not living up to conscienceego ideal causes guilt y Ego defense mechanisms o Repression pushing thought into unconscious o Reaction formation saying opposite of how you feel o Projection projecting unacceptable feelings onto someone else o Fixationregression going back to phase fixated on oralbiting nails etc o Sublimation turning unacceptable urges into socially acceptable behaviour aggressionsports etc y Psychoanalysisearliest technique to help with anxietyused free association and dream analysiscould lead to resistance or insight y 2 types of dreams o Manifest what dream seems to be about on the surface o Latent underlying meaning of symbols in dream emotional release that takes place once you recognize your unconscious conflict y Abreaction y Should use objective tests that get at unconscious not subjective tests that only get at the surface y 2 common projective tests o Thematic apperception task TAT shown a picture of a person performing ambiguous behaviours and have to say what they are doing o Rorschach inkblots what ambiguous inkblots look like y 2 types of research o Subjective case study psychobiography mythsliterature o Objective clinical method combat neurosis experimental repressors vs sensitizers
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