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Midterm

Psychology 2660A/B Midterm: Week 5 and 7


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2660A/B
Professor
Natalie J Allen
Study Guide
Midterm

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Ch. 5: Assessment Methods for Selection and Placement
Who is est suited to the jo?
Predictors >>>>>>>> Criteria
KSAOs
Knowledge- what the person knows about a job
Skills: something a person is able to do
Abilities: capacity to learn something
Other: interests, personality, physical characteristics, prior experience
On what do we base the KSAOs for a particular job? Ideally a job analysis
JOB X
What are some of its KSAOs?
How would you assess these?
Assessment Methods used to assess KSAOs
Characteristics of Tests (4)
Group vs. Individually Administered Tests
Group tests: administered to several people at once
o Can be in printed form or on a computer
o Test administrator will control access to the test, time the test and ensure the identity of the
candidate to control for concerns of testing conditions and test security
o Greater efficiency preferred when feasible
Individual tests: necessary because the administrator has to score the items as the test proceeds or an
apparatus is involved
o Often used in administering cognitive ability tests to children
Closed- Ended vs. open- ended tests
Closed ended tests: test taker must choose one from several possible responses eg. mc test
o Preferred- greater ease in scoring
Open ended tests: test taker must generate a response rather than choosing a correct response
o More appropriate for some characteristics
o Eg. writing ability write an essay
Paper and pencil vs. performance tests
Paper and pencil test: responses are made in written form
o eg. Multiple choice, open answer
Performance test: manipulation of apparatuses, equipment, materials or tools.
o Eg. typing test - Most widely used
Power versus speed tests
Power test: gives the test taker almost unlimited time to complete a test
Speed test: strict time limit
WOR K / J O B ANAL Y S IS
J ob Evalu a tio n J ob Des cription J ob S p e c ific atio n
C ompensation C riterion D evelopment S election
P erformance Appraisal P lacement
J ob design/redes ign
T raining
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o Designed so no one can finish all items in the allotted time
o 2 ways they are used:
can contain challenging items that must be completed under time pressure
desiged to assess a peso’s speed i doig a patiula task eg. tpig
1. Psychological tests
standardized series of problems or questions that assess a particular individual characteristic
- Used to assess individual characteristics eg. knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, interests, personality
- Comprised of multiple items indicators of the characteristic of interest
Can be completed quickly making it feasible to include many items to assess each
characteristic and to assess several characteristics at one time
A. Ability Tests
o capacity to do or learn to do a particular task
o the importance of each ability is dependent on the nature of the tasks of interest
o many tasks require both cognitive abilities and psychomotor abilities
- COGNITIVE ABILITY TEST
o Relevant to tasks that involve information processing and learning
o Eg. intelligence IQ tests
o Eg. Personnel Tests for Industry (PTI) designed to assess mathematical and verbal ability
Items are problems involving math and verbal reasoning
o Valid predictors of job performance
o Often used by large organizations for employee selection efficient and validity
- PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS
o Involve body movements and manipulation of objects
o Performance tests manipulation of objects rather than cognitive elements
o Scored on their ability to perform motor tasks
o Eg. manual dexterity Purdue Pegboard Dexterity Test
B. Emotional Intelligence Tests
- The ability people have to control and recognize emotions in themselves and in others
- Makes people more socially skilled, enabling them to be aware of and to control their impact on others
- Being able to work smoothly with colleagues and exert leadership for supervisors
2 types:
1. EI as a personality trait like a personality tests by responding to how well an item relates to you
2. EI as an ability mc format with one right answer based on the assumption that people cannot
directly report their EI as it is not accessible to their awareness but is revealed in their answer selection
- Can predict job performance in jobs which employees must manage their own emotions
- Relates to studet’s GPAs
- Relates to managers to the job satisfaction of subordinates
- Not supported that EI is one of the most important characteristics for job success
- Construct validity of EI tests questioned are they really measuring personality/ cogn. ability?
C. Personality Tests
- Assess personality traits
- Can assess a single trait, multiple dimensions to provide profiles of individuals across several personality
traits
- Eg. International Personality Item Pool provides more than 2000 personality items that can be used
- Feuetl used to stud diffeet aspets of people’s ehaiou i ogaizatios 2 major concerns:
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1. Possibility that job applicants will fake responses toward confirmation biases undermining the
validity of the test
Attempts to distort a personality test will not invalidate it for employee selection
May function for self presentation
2. personality tests do not always appear to be as job relevant as other assessment devices
- Job relevance: that what an assessment tool measures is linked to the KSAO requirements
of the job
Personality tests can predict performance
Specific personality traits chosen to be relevant to job performance on particular jobs will better
predict performance
D. Integrity Tests
To predict whether an employee will engage in counterproductive or dishonest behaviour on the job
o Including cheating, sabotage, theft, unethical behaviour
2 types
1. overt integrity test assess a peso’s attitudes ad pio ehaiou
Asks the person to indicate agreement or disagreement with statements
2. personality integrity test assess personality characteristics that have been found to predict
counterproductive behaviour.
standard personality inventories often are used as integrity test
can productive counter productive behaviour at work, including absence, theft, etc.
better at predicting absence, general counterproductive behavior, and job performance than theft
E. Task based skill tests (knowledge and skill test achievement test)
- Desiged to assess a peso’s peset leel of pofiie
- Knowledge test assess what the person knows / skills test assess what a person is able to do
o Major difference between the two:
Emphasis placed on prior knowledge and skill in performing specific tasks
Eg. skill how well a person types, ability putting pegs in holes (hand eye)
- Eg. Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test: assesses a combination of mechanical ability and knowledge
about tools determining if a person has a good understanding of how mechanical things work and how
tools can be used rather than her skill using the tool
2. Biographical information: asks fo detailed ifoatio aout the peso’s past epeiee, oth o ad off
the job
- Asks for more extensive information than a job application
3. Interviews: face to face meeting between an interviewee and one or more interviewers who are collecting
information or making hiring decisions
o Unstructured interview: interviewer asks whatever questions
o Structure interview: interviewer has a preplanned series of questions that are asked of every
person who is interviewed
o Both iteiee akes oeall judgets aout the iteieee’s suitailit fo the jo
4. Work samples: an assessment device that requires a person to demonstrate how well he or she can
perform job tasks under standardized conditions
- Type of simulation in which a person does a job or part of a job under testing conditions rather than actual
job conditions
Very specific to that job
Does not assess general skill
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