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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2720A/B
Professor
Sandra Lackenbauer
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 8 : conformity, compliance and obedience - Conformity : any change in behaviour caused by other person/ group (most general concept) - Compliance: a change in behaviour that is requested by another person or group - Obedience: change in behaviour that is ordered by another person or group o Norm of obedience to authority: more obedience when the order comes from some in a powerful position - Conforming behaviour due to: o Informational influence: desire to be correct and obtain valuable information (caused by accuracy motivation) o Normative influence: to gain rewards or avoid punishment (caused by social motivation) - Accuracy motivation: desire to make accurate judgments (observing, copying...) - Social motivation: desire to establish and maintain social relationships - Autokinetic effect: o M.Sherif: ldark room, light, how many movement the light did? Answers influenced by other o Solomon Asch: line judgment o Richard Crutchfield: Crutchfield apparatus (11 lights/switches in reality controlled) - Conformity: greater when task is ambiguous and difficult, increases with larger groups and in collectivist cultures than individualist cultures and women more than men. - Compliance techniques: o Jonathan Freedman, The foot-in-the-door technique: agreement to a small request results in higher rates of agreement to a larger request (sign in driveway) o Robert Cialdini: The door-in-the-face technique: if present first a large request to people they will be more likely to agree to a smaller request (norm of reciprocity) o Dennis Regan: the free-gift technique: give a gift to comply o Cialdini, Bassett, Miller: The low-ball technique: given price, agreement, but price increase, people stay consistent (experimentation at 7am) o Worchel, Lee, Adewola: the scarcity technique the product appear rare so it becomes more attractive o The liking technique: more likely to comply with requests if people we like (small discussion prior the request) - Terror management theory: conformity to social values and cultural worldviews can serve to protect people from death anxiety - Social impact theory: social influence is the result of social forces acting on individuals Chapter 9: stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination - Prejudice: negative attitude toward members of a group - Discrimination: negative behaviour toward people based on their group membership - Genocide: attempt to eliminate an ethnic group (banishment or murder) - Aversive racism: people that not consider themselves as racists and find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive even if they harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings - J. Dovidio and S. Gaertner: peer-counseling program o Strong qualification: recommended both applicant o Weak qualification: not recommended regardless the skin color o Ambiguous qualification: recommended the white more often than the black - Stereotypes: individual’s beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes o Often negative and oversimplified, lead to prejudice and discrimination - Self-fulfilling prophety: vicious cycle, leading people to behave toward members of a group in ways that actually elicit the expected actions from those members o Interviewers spend more time with white and exhibited more nonverbal behaviors (immediacy) with the white applicant. - Subliminal priming procedure (Patricia Devine): participants rated the man more hostile when they saw the black stereotype; this is called implicit intergroup biases. - Meta-stereotype (Jacquie Vorauer): person’s belief that out-group members has something against his or her own group so tend to anticipate un-pleasant interactions o Expe: same stereotype about how Canadians are viewed by aboriginal Canadians (unfair, materialistic, egocentric) - The scapegoat theory (Hovland and Sears): members of a dominant group use discrimination against members of weak target groups to vent their frustration even if the weak group has no role in causing. o As cotton prices went down, lynchings went up - Realistic group conflict theory (Sherif): when groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility is aroused. Social identity theory: prejudice against the other group can make people feel good about them because they see their own group as better than the derogated group - Integrated threat theory (Stephan): prejudice toward an out-group result from: o realistic threats against a job position o symbolic threats against belief, values o threats stemming from intergroup anxiety discomfort during interactions (lack of familiarity) o threats arising from negative stereotypes out-group has undesirable characteristics that may lead to detrimental actions toward the in group o expe: aboriginal and Canadians agreed about symbolic, intergroup anxiety, negative stereotype but only canadians see aboriginal as a realistic threats - scapegoat theory => frustrations - realistic group conflict theory => perceived competition - social identity theory => self-enhancement - integrated threat theory => threats - Sexism: measure by neosexism scale (Tougas) - Ambivalent sexism inventory: 2 dimensions of sexism: o Benevolent sexism: positive (paternalistic) attitude o Hostile sexism: negative attitudes toward women who violate the traditional stereotype (e.g. feminists) o The level of benevolent and hostile sexism in a country is negatively correlated with the measures of gender inequality in that country - Appearance self-esteem: women are less satisfied with their physics than men at all ages. - Personal-group discrimination discrepancy: individual people reports less negative treatment than the average member of their group o Inuit people, less discrimination than the average of Inuit adult o Crosby: disadvantaged people want to see themselves as experiencing relatively little discrimination to feel that they have more control over their lives. o Hordson and Esses: people wants to distance themselves from negative attributes associated with their group. - Stereotype threat: put pressure on people to do as well as possible in order to discredit the negative stereotype but lead to anxiety and reducing memory capacity o Steele and Aronson: verbal test, white versus black, group control and group under pressure  Black people without pressure: did as well as the white  Black people under pressure: did worse than the white - Contact hypothesis: exposure to members of an out-group will produce more favorable attitudes toward the group o But!! Intergroup contact must meet several pre-requisites in order to produce positive attitudes, including equal status, cooperative behaviour, support from legitimate authorities, and contact must be intimate or personally important. o Increase contact with gay and lesbians or Jigsaw classroom - Color-blind approach: we should categorize other people as individual persons rather than as members of a group But multiculturalism says that different cultural groups within a society should each maintain their own identity while simultaneously respecting all other groups. Chapter 10: group dynamic and intergroup relations - Group dynamics: groups processes (group= 2 or more persons, interacting/influencing one another) - Small groups: 2 to 20 members; large groups over 20 - Social facilitation: effects of the presence of other people on individual performance. When the task is well learned, the presence of other people tends to produce better performance and if the task is difficult or novel, the performance is worse. o Zajonc: presence of others increase the dominant response - Social loafing: increase with larger group, men more likely to participate. It a reflection of western values and culture o expe: cheering alone versus in group o social loafing in US but not in China.. - De-individuation: people lose their sense of personal identity and feel immersed in a group (large group and clothing). De-individuation tends to increase socially undesirable behaviour but we don’t know if it’s due to the fact that group releases people from inhibitions, increases their responsiveness to external cues. o Expe: Halloween, non-anonymous and anonymous condition  More likely to break the rules when they were anonymous rather than non- anonymous and in group rather alone. - Group-think: when pressure to agree leads to biased appraisal of options or poor decisions. o Occurs mainly in groups that are high in group cohesiveness (so do everything for staying in the group) o Occurs with a directive leader o Occurs when there is a lot of stress o Symptoms of groupthink  Illusion of invulnerability (make risky decisions)  Rationalization of warnings  An unquestioned belief in the inherent morality of the group  Stereotyped views of enemy leaders (weak versus evil)  Pressure on group members who challenge the consensus  Self-censorship of misgivings, questions and counterarguments  Illusion of unanimity o Flowers: better to have a non-directive=open-style leader (more response) - Group polarization: tendency to fit into the initial leanings o People usually argue in favor of their own view on an issue o People’s desire to appear knowledgeable and intelligent o In juries: greater for verdicts of innocent than verdicts of guilty - Leadership emergence: who becomes a leader - Leadership effectiveness: who makes a good leader - Different types of leader: o Transformational leaders: change the way that members view themselves and the group o Task achievement function = task leader: for group productivity o Group maintenance function= socio-emotional leader: involved all the things related to morale in group - The trait approach to leadership=great person theory: o McCann: tall american president won… o Eagly, Karau: men tend to perform better than women when the leader’s role called for traditionally strengths and the reverse direction, woman for feminine strengths. So men are more likely to be task leader and women socio-emotional leader. o Sorrentino, Field: tested if the achievement of motivation (attracted and not frightened by the performance) and affiliation motivation (approach or avoid social settings) are related to leadership:  12 groups of four members each: one high in achievement and affiliation, one low in motivation and affiliation, one high in achievement but low in affiliation, one high in affiliation but low in achievement.  At the end the high, high person was always seen as leader of the group - The situational approach t
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