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Psych Stats Key Terms.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2800E
Riley Hinson

Psych Stats Key Terms Ethical Considerations Institutional Review Board: Comprised of a broad spectrum of university professors and community representatives, every research project is subject to review by this Informed Consent: Full disclosure of all aspects of the research that might reasonably be expected to influence willingness to participate and explains all other aspects about which the participants inquire. (research with children and impaired persons requires special safeguard procedures, along with when there is failure to make full disclosure in order to protect the welfare and dignity of the participant) Anonymity: situations which there is no way to link responses to specific participants, including the investigator Confidentiality: situations in which responses/information obtained from participants are initially linked if certain situations arise, but no one other than the researcher will have access to Hyperclaims: claims about the importance of the research that are not realistic Deception: In cases where full disclosure may produce demand characteristics, indications about what the results should be like, which would potentially compromise the results Passive deception: withholding of information in the informed consent phase Active deception: giving false information about some conditions of the study Placebo group: no treatment is given in the experiment Active treatment control: comparing one treatment to an already established treatment Sampling Biased samples: samples that systematically favours the inclusion (or exclusion) of participants with certain characteristics, but therefore limiting the internal and external validity of the results Representative sample: reflects important characteristics of the population in roughly the same proportion as those characteristics appear in the population itself. IF A SAMPLE IS BIASED, IT CANNOT BE REPRESENTATIVE. Probability sampling: uses some form of random selection, so that each member of the sampled group has the same chance of being chosen. There is no bias and there must be a listing of the population, known as the sampling frame Simple random sampling: where every member of the population has an equal chance of being in the sample Systematic selection plan (interval sampling): where a list of the population members are given, and based on an Nth number that you designate, you start on the list at a random spot (e.g. th th pick a random spot on the list, pick every 9 person starting on the 37 person. The order would then be 37 , 46 , 55 , etc.) Strata: segments that can be randomly sampled in order to represent certain groups (e.g. gender, age, ethnic groups, educational level, income, etc.) and to avoid underrepresentation Proportionate stratified sampling: the proportion of the total participants randomly selected from each strata is made equal to the proportion of the total population represented by each strata. MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE Simple cluster sampling: naturally occurring groups of participants are identified, which are the clusters, and a random sample of the clusters are taken and then every member of the chosen clusters is sampled (e.g. provinces are clusters in Canada) Multistage cluster sampling: clusters are first randomly sampled, and then individuals within clusters are randomly sampled, having two stages of randomization Convenience sampling: members of the population who are easiest to measure are used Voluntary response sample / self-selected sample: members of the population voluntarily respond t some general appeal for information Snowball sampling / networking: access to participants that are hard-to-identify and who thus might not be otherwise obtained (e.g. study on drug addicts, volunteer is typically known to the researcher) Purposive sampling: identifies a specific set of individuals who can provide the information needed (e.g. professional athletic coaches) Psychological Measures: Operational Definitions, Questionnaires, Validity, Reliability, and Reactivity Operational definition: defines a variable according to the specific operations used to produce or measure the variable (e.g. hunger operationalized by hours of food deprivation) Psychometric properties: validity and reliability Close-ended items: In questionnaires, the items that give you a finite amount of choices to decide, giving a concrete answer designated by the experimenter (e.g. multiple choice) Open-ended items: items that do not have a prespecified set of alternative answers, thus allowing the respondent to answer the question in his/her own words Content analysis: identifying recurring themes in the responses and then noting the frequency of occurrence of these themes. Double barreled questions: to avoid! Where there are two portions of a question, and one may agree with one and not the other (e.g. do you favour increasing health care funding and raising taxes?) Scoring key: the way to measure a construct in a questionnaire, by having most often the sum of all the items relating to a particular factor Factor analysis: a statistical procedure which identifies items for which responses are highly correlated, in which the items are considered to measure one particular component or factor of an overall construct Reverse score: For items that are negatively keyed, a reverse score is made Verification or lie scale: by repeating the same question from a positive to a negative keyed items, in order to see if respondent is answering conscientiously, they will respond correctly. Otherwise, it will show they are not, and if repeated the research may consider eliminating the participant’s data Error choice method: In order to answer questions that may be sensitive for undesirable characteristics, the questions are worded where you are given two options, where the true answer is the middle of the two. By choosing one or another, you are unconsciously leaning toward one view than the other Bogus pipeline: Most often using a mechanical device which tells where the participant is lying or not, but the machine itself does not actually tell lies or is not actually used Likert scale: involves stepwise adjective choices that
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