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[Psychology 2990A/B] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (151 pages long)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2990A/B
Professor
Doug Hazlewood
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Psychology 2990A/B
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Psychology and The Law
Chapter 1: An Introduction:
Part 1: How Common are Jury Trials?
Two types of trials:
o1. Civil Trial (disputes between citizens/groups).
No absolute right to a jury trial (depends on provincial- territorial legislation).
E.g. allowed in Ontario (not Quebec).
o2. Criminal Trials (offences against the Crown).
“The act that you were charged with is against the peace of our lady the Queen, her crown,
and dignity.”
Right to jury trial guaranteed in Criminal Code.
But, only for more serious offences (penalty of 5 years or more in prison).
When juries are involved, there for most serious cases with most serious offences.
Part 2: The Role of Juries:
They apply the laws (as defined by judges).
To the admissible evidence.
Render a unanimous verdict of guilty or not guilty.
Also assumed they will play 2 other roles:
oJuries “represent the community(adds legitimacy and public acceptance to verdicts).
oServe as “conscience” of the community (can guard against laws perceived to be unfair).
E.g. Dr. Henry Morgentaler and abortion laws 4 or 5 juries refused to find him guilty of
performing abortions in private clinic (used to be against the law), the government changed
the law so they were no longer illegal in private clinics.
Part 3: Characteristics of a “Good: Jury:
Must be representative of the community where the crime occurred.
1. “Typical” selection procedure:
oObtain list of people in community where the crime occurred (e.g. voter registration; census; local
phone book).
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“Jury pool”—list of people in community.
oRandomly select people from pool (e.g. 100).
“Jury panel”- people who have been selected.
oEach person on panel is sent a jury summons (court order to appear for jury duty).
Refusing to respond to a jury summons is illegal and can send you to prison.
Given number and placed in a jury room.
oNumbers are randomly selected (12 in criminal trials; 6 in civil trials).
These people “usually” become jurors UNLESS...
2. Two things that can keep people OFF a jury:
oNot eligible for jury duty (varies by province).
Ontario Eligibility: must be Canadian citizen living in Ontario, and be at least 18 years old.
Must NOT be:
Member of the House of Commons, senate.
Judge, lawyer, law student, police officer.
MD, vet, coroner
Have a physical or mental disability that would prevent you from performing your
role as a juror.
Ex-con/convicted of serious offence in the past.
In Ontario, eligibility is determined BEFORE people are summoned for duty.
oBeing challenged by one of the lawyers (see below).
If successful, person is send back to jury room (might be selected for another trial).
3. Things to note about selection procedure:
No guarantee that jury will be representative.
E.g. biased “pool” (e.g., no homeless people).
Above limit representativeness.
Lawyers can appeal verdict (ask for new trial) if it can be proved that jury was not representative in an
“important” way (e.g. too few women or native Canadians).
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