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Applied Psych Final Review.doc

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Psychology 2990A/B
Doug Hazlewood

Applied Psych Final Review Chapter 9- psychology and environment Key points of social psych: social psychological questions are best tested with the experimental method, these studies can be used to understand basic psychological processes and to develop theories about social influence, social psychological theories and methods can be used to address pressing social problems Basic research: concerned with theoretical issues Applied research: concerned with addressing specific real-world problems Communication: works in two ways, when people make a public commitment to help it is harder to back out and when people communicate they are more likely to form a group and sense of identity Injunctive norms: peoples perceptions of the behaviour that is approved or disapproved of by others Descriptive norms: peoples perceptions of how other people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the behaviour is approved or disapproved of by others Implementation plan: peoples specific plans about where when and how they will fulfill a goal Hypocrites: when people feel like they are hypocrites they are more likely to change their behaviour so they feel good aboustthemselves Environmental psychology –april 1 Environmental psych: concerned with effects of environment on people and social environment Effects of environments on ppl: natural environment (eg green space) and built environment (noise poullution, lighting, windows ect.) Social environments: crowding and stress, personal environment 2 person dilemma: 2 men arrested for robbery, prosecutor needs a confession so plays the if u say the other person does it we will make a deal blah blah blah this causes an increase in confession because we are scared Resource management dilemma: if we have a limited resource everyone cant use a lot of it, but some people feel like they shouldn’t have to decline in their use if other people arnt also doing that Public goods: if everyone use it but only a bit, but if no one helps nothing good will happen, similar to taxes, if not everyone pays them the government has less money to work with Chapter 6-psych and the workplace Achievement motivation theory: the theory of motivation the emphasizes the need to accomplish something to do a good job and to be the best, ppl who have a high degree of the need for achievement derive great satisfaction from working to accomplish some goal and they are motivated to excel in whatever task they undertake Study of motivation: it is important as a consumer because you can be the victim of faulty workers and because you yourself will spend most of your life working and therefore should be motivated to do so David McClelland and his study on business managers: found successful business managers consistently display high need to achieve, regardless of the culture, economic growth of organizations and societies can be related to the level of the achievement need among employees and citizens found 3 major characteristic of people who have a high need to achieve Three characteristics of people with a high need to achieve: the favour work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems, they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate attainable goals and they need continuing recognition and feedback about their progress so that they know how well they are doing Correlations between achievement motivation and financial success: high correlation, and they will be displayed more respect and more receptive to new ideas, better job performance Mastery: developing competence and self-satisfaction through acquiring knowledge and skills Mastery orientation: employees with this strong were ore effective on the job than were those with a strong performance orientation, established higher quality leader-member exchanges 3 dimensions of achievement motivation: perseverance, competition and level of difficulty of controlling the task Needs hierarchy theory: theory of motivation that encompasses physiological, safety, belonging, esteem and self-actualization needs Motivator-hygiene (two factor) theory: theory of motivation that explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms of job tasks and workplace features, two sets of needs motivation needs and hygiene needs Physiological needs: basic human needs like food air ect Safety needs: need for shelter and stability Belonging and love needs: social needs for love affection Esteem needs: need for self-esteem and admiration Self-actualization: need for self-fulfillment motivator needs: internal to the work itself, include nature of job tasks and works responsibility, can be satisfied by stimulating challenging and absorbing work hygiene needs: job dissatisfaction is made by this it relates to promotion and maintenance of health, needs are external to the task of a particular job, include company policy job enrichment: an effort to expand the score of a job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing and evaluating their work, remove some management controls, create natural work environments, feedback job-characteristics theory: theory of motivation that states that specific job characteristic lead to psychological conditions that can increase motivation, performance and satisfaction in employees who have a high growth need. Individual difference in the need for growth Core job characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback Valence-instrumentality-expectancy (VIE) theory: theory of motivation that states that people can make choices that are based on their perceived expectations that certain rewards will follow if they behave in a particular way, 3 facts; employees must decide whether they expect certain job behaviours, must determine whether that outcome will lead to other outcomes and whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way Process theories: focus on the cognitive processes that are part of the decision making Job Diagnostic survey: measure three aspects of the theory, employees perceptions of the job characteristics, employees level of the growth need, and employees job satisfaction, is a self report survey Equity theory: theory of motivation that states that peoples motivation on the job is influenced by their perceptions of how fairly they are treated, we assess our inputs and our outcomes and mentally compare it with what we believe are the ratios of our coworkers, if they are the same equity exists, you can react in 3 ways benevolent, equity sensitive and entitled persons Benevolent: satisfied when they are underrwearded compared to coworkers, they feel guilty Equity sensitive: everyone should be rewarded fairly Entitled persons: believe they deserve more Goal-setting theory: motivation based on the idea that a persons primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of the desire to achieve a particular goal, setting specific and challenging performance goals can motivate and guide behaviour, specific goals are better for motivation and a persons goal commitment is important Strength of persons determination to reach a goal is dependent on: external interactive and internal factors Big 5 personality factors related to performance motivation: people who score high in conscientiousness and low in neuroticism display the highest motivation induced by goal setting Job satisfaction: our positive and negative feelings and attitudes about our jobs, personal factors can influence this, and will effect our psychological wellbeing Job descriptive index: measure 5 job factors, pay, promotion, supervision the nature of the work and the characteristics of one co worker Age: job satisfaction increases with age Job congruence: match between a persons abilities and the requirements of a job, the higher this is the greater job satisfaction Race: more white than non-white employees report satisfaction Cognitive ability: not appear to be significant determinant of job satisfaction but it important when related to the type of work a person chooses Job experience: initial stage of employment workers tend to be more satisfied and then again increases when they are older Organizational justice: how fairly employees perceive themselves to be treated by their company Personality: more satisfied in their work are better adjusted and more emotionally stable especially if they feel like they are in control Achievement striving: extent to which people work hard and take work seriously, is positively related to job satisfaction Impatience/irritability: intolerance ext, is negatively related to job satisfaction Job control: people who can exercise greater control over their job duties will be more highly motivated to perform well and will experience greater satisfaction Occupational level: higher the occupational or status level of job the higher the satisfaction Unemployment: people who had higher level jobs are more effected by unemployment, and people who lost their jobs after the age of 50 had twice the risk of stroke and heart attacks Proscoial behaviour: behaviours directed towards supervisors, co-workers, and clients that are helpful to an organization. Productivity: higher the reported satisfaction the higher the level of performance, this also effects customers satisfaction Absenteeism: costs businesses more than $30 billion a year Turnover: high turnover to high job dissatisfaction is strong Perceived pay equity: strong positive correlation between pay satisfaction and job performance Merit pay: wage employees with high job system in which pay is based on level of performance, better performing workers in an organization are paid more than the less productive workers Wage-incentive system: primary pay system for production workers in which the more units produced the higher is the wage, provides an incentive for high job performance Personal factors: employees with high job involvement are more satisfied with and more successful at their jobs, rates of turnover and absenteeism are lower 3 kinds of organizational commitment: behavioural, normative and affective commitment Affective commitment: employee identifies with the organization internalizing its values and attitudes and complies with its demands Behavioural commitment: employee is bound to the organization only by peripheral factors such as pension plans and seniority Normative commitment: sense of obligation to remain with the employer Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB): putting forth extra effort, doing more for an employer than the min reuqirment Psych and the workplace – March 11 th Industrial psychology: personnel selection and placement Musterberh plushishes: the psychology of industrial efficiency to increase productivity and selecting people with skills that match the job requirements Personnel selection: selecting the right person for the job Armys practice problem: needed help selecting the best soldiers for specific jobs there were army alpha (could read and write English) and army beta (cant read or write in English) used psychological tests to help Organizational psychology: hawthrone studies at electric plant and looked at how different environments effect productivity and how the physical environment is not as important as the social and psychological environment, created the hawthorne effect Survey
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