Psychology 2990A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Lester B. Pearson, Hawthorne Effect, Job Satisfaction

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Chapter 6 – Psychology in the Workplace
Industrial-Organizational Psych
Leadership in Organization
History of I-O Psych
Industrial Psych: Personnel Selection and Placement
oMost key 2 things
oMunsterberg 1913: publishes “Psychology of Industrial Efficiency”
Good way to increase productivity (industrial efficiency), is to select
people with skills that match the job requirements
personnel selection: selecting the right person for the job
o1917: WW1 – Industrial Psych emerged in response to US Army’s practical
problem:
How to select the best soldiers?
Hired psychologists – developed 2 intelligence tests
Army Alpha (read and write English)
Army Beta (could not read/write English)
oBoth tests were successful
oThen new tests to select: officers, pilots and eliminate the most “neurotic” recruits
Psych tests could screen/classify large numbers of people
oLater, businesses and schools wanted their own tests to select/classify people
(placement into appropriate grade/job)
Organizational Psych (1924)
oHawthorne studies at Western Electric in Hawthorne, Illinois
Effect of environmental factors on productivity (altering
lights/temperature)
*Nearly any change they made to environment (+ or – light)
increased productivity!
Physical environment is not as important as the social and
psychological environment
*The employee knew that they were being observed, so they
worked harder
oThis is the Hawthorne Effect!
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Leadership in Organization
oPart 1: Effect of leaders on Job Satisfaction
Survery Q: what is the worst thing about your job? (or largest source of
stress for job?)
75% said “my boss”
oMost complaints about bosses/supervisors
oUnwilling to delegate authority to workers
oAbusive towards workers
oTreat workers as stupid/incompetent
How do bad bosses become leaders?
Best workers promoted to leaders
Problem: good worker =/= good leader
oPart 2: What makes a Good Leader?
Great Person Theory of Leadership
Great leaders are born with special traits that allow them to take
charge (suggests: leaders are born, not made)
Longitudinal Research: measure variety of traits at Time 1, see if any
are related to leader effectiveness at a later time (Time 2)
Officer candidates in the Canadian Armed Forces – studied over 5
year period
oOnly 1 trait emerged as a predictor: dominance
Retrospective Research: find great leaders and look back to see what
traits they possess
Political leaders – where lots of the research is focused
2 reasons, 1) lots of info about political leaders historically –
American Presidents build libraries and thorough historical
documents, easy to find speeches and things they’ve written to
get an idea of the traits the possess. 2) historians have been
happy to classify (rank) political leaders
Canadian PMS
oOnly 1 trait: integrated complexity – ability to recognize
and adopt multiple views of situation and integrate them
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(Pierre Trudeau rated high) one of the most effective
leaders
American Presidents
ono traits related to leader effectiveness
o*or maybe 3 traits (smart, messy and achievement
oriented) tend to be ranked as better presidents
Conclusions
oHundreds of traits measured, very few related to leader
effectiveness
oDifferent studies ID different traits (not much consistency
in findings)
oSo not much support for the Great Person Theory
except for tallness of the leader (tend to be more effective
leaders) – Abe Lincoln!
oTaller candidates more likely to be elected as president
1928-2012, tallest candidate won 18/22 elections
(82% of time)
Managers of American Corporations (male and
female) are on average 1 inch taller than non-
managers
Great person  great bit person theory? Hehehe
oGood Leadership Depends on the Situation
Integrative complexity of CAN PMs went down in crisis situations (less
effective leaders) in (economic or international crisis)
Only few become more IC in a crisis
Lester Pearson and the “Suez Canal” crisis (1956): Egypt threatened
to take control of the Suaz Canal, meant controlling shipment of oil to
other parts of the world, some leaders (Brit, France, Israel) were ready to
go to war. USSR sided with Egypt, is US gets involved  Nuclear War!
Lester Pearson negotiated a peaceful end to this, became more
IC in his thinking
UN peace keeping missions – product of his IC thinking and was
awarded a Nobel Peace Prize (1957)
Another situational factor: Characteristics of Workers (developed
specifically in IO psych)
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