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Psychology 3224A/B
Jennifer Hoo Shooley

Psych 3227 Textbook NotesChapter 1The development of neuropsychologyNeuropsychology is strongly influenced by two traditional foci of experimental and theoretical investigations into brain functionoBrain hypothesisidea that the brain is the source of behavior oNeuron hypothesisidea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuronThe Brain oGyrithe folds oSulcicreases between gyri Large ones called fissuresoCerebral cortex constitutes most of the forebrain Mediates cognitive functions oBrain stem mediates regulatory functions Wernickes areaoWernickes syndrometemporallobe aphasiafluent aphasiaWernickes aphasia a person can say words oWernickes model Sound sensations enter brain through auditory pathway Here sound is processed into auditory images or ideas of objects stores Pathway then goes to Brocas area where representation of speech movements are stored Then neural instructions are sent to muscles that control movements of the mouth to produce appropriate sounds oIf the temporal lobe is damaged speech movements could be mediated by Brocas area but the speech would make no senseoBrocas aphasia is not accompanied by loss of understanding Hierarchical organization and distributed systems in the brainJohn HughlingsJackson observed recovery of function in humans who suffered brain injury He proposed that the nervous system was organized as a functional hierarchy He also proposed that every part of the brain could contribute to a behavior Question was not where language was localized but what unique contribution each part of the cortex makes HMBilateral removal of the medial parts of the temporal lobes to treat epilepsy Left him with amnesia Proved that there are a number of neural structures that encode memories separately and in parallel He could remember faces but not emotional experiences HM suggests that people encode different parts of an experience in different parts of the brain concurrently There does not appear to be a place in the brain where all aspects of the experience come together to form the memory Binding problemexpresses the puzzle that although the brain analyzes events through multiple parallel channels they dont converge onto a single brain region we perceive a unified representation of our experiences The Split brainBroca demonstrated that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere The left was considered dominant for language and for all higher cognitive functionIn the early 1960s to prevent the spread of epileptic seizures the corpus callosum was cut Roger Sperry conducted a series of studies on these splitbrain patients that overthrew the classical view of the role of the two hemispheresThe right hemisphere was found to comprehend words spoken aloud read printed words and vice versa Found that each disconnected hemisphere has its own higher functions oLeftspoken language analytic and sequential actionsoRightperforming mental tasks spatial and synthetic acts Conscious and unconscious neural streamsDF was poisoned by CO and developed visual form agnosia She could not recognize objects or drawings of objectsShe was able to reach and grasp for a pencil they offered her but she could not see the pencil or tell whether its orientation was horizontal or vertical Further tests showed she was able to shape her hand correctly to grasp many objects that she could not recognize She could step over objects she couldnt see DFs lesion is in a pathway from the visual cortex to the temporal lobeventral streamBrain lesions in patients with optic ataxia are in neural structures with a pathway from the visual cortex to the parietaldorsal streamGoodale and Milner proposed the ventral stream mediates actions controlled by conscious perception and the dorsal stream mediates actions controlled by unconscious visual perception Nervous system cellNervous system is composed of two basic cells neurons and glia Neurons help us acquire info process it and act on itGlia help neurons by holding them together providing supporting functions ie waste removalMore glia than neurons in the nervous system Basic parts of a neuronoCell bodycore region oDendritesbranching extensions oAxonmain root Neuron has only one axon but many dendrites oMain purpose is to extend the cells surface areaRelating electrical activity in neurons to behaviorFritsch and Hitzig placed an electrode onto or into the cortex and passed a small electrical current through the uninsulated tip of the wire exciting the tissue near the tip They showed stimulating the cortex electrically could produce movements It was selectively excitable Frontal lobemovements on the opposite side of the body oCertain parts caused movement of particular body parts suggesting cortex has topographic neural representations of different parts of the bodyParietal lobeno movementSimilar experiments can now be conducted by used transcranial magnetic stimulation Connections between neurons as the basis of learningSherrington theorized that neurons are connected by junctions and additional time is required for the message to get across oHe called these junctions synapsesLoewi demonstrated that chemicals carry the message across the synapseHebbs learning theorywhen individual cells are activated at the same time they establish connecting synapses or strengthen existing ones oProposed that new or strengthened connections are the structural bases of memory Brain imagingDiscovered that multiple sclerosis results from hardening of nervefiber pathways in the spinal cord Essential tool for diagnosis today
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