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Psychology 3723F/G
Martin Kavaliers

Intro to attitudes: definitions and functions Key aspects of attitude: eval, target, automatic, optional awareness, affective usually Attitudes are based on and influence:  Cognitive information and information processing o Beliefs/knowledge about an object, expectations of costs and benefits  Affective information/feelings o Feelings toward object, emotions elicited, pleasure/pain associated  Behavioural information o Previous actions/ownership, planned actions toward object o Self perception theory – people infer their atts from their actions  most likely when attitude is weak/ambiguous  the three component view /CAB components  components may be consistent w one another but sometimes not o dentist is good but not a fan Explicit attitudes: conscious Implicit attitudes: auto eval without awareness – cant be measured conventionally  usually consistent with explicit attitudes, individuals usually aware of them  inconsistencies btw implicit/explicit could be bc unwilling to admit to self o could reflect ambivalent attitude – contains positive and negative content  when inconsistent, may predict different things o explicit attitudes predict deliberate behaviour o implicit attitudes predict spontaneous behaviour Values  broad ideals/goals that guide peoples’ lives  general principles people hope to follow  very general attitudes – honesty, pleasure, freedom o Shalom Schwartz’s pie chart  Functions of attitudes: 1. Object appraisal/utilitarian – rapid eval, approach/avoidance, max rewards 2. Social adjustment/value-expressive – link people, express ID, express value 3. Externalized/ego-defense – rid internal conflicts, protects ego 4. Knowledge – helps to understand, integrate inconsistent beliefs, prediction  Useful to know bc: o Explains spontaneous formation o Effectiveness of attitude change strategies depend on if they match funct
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