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Psychology 3950F/G Midterm: 3950F/G - Midterm Study Notes

27 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 3950F/G
Professor
Albert N Katz

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Description
Great person approach: history of idea development is the history of great thinkers The zeitgeist approach: to understand growth of ideas; important factor is social cultural milieu in which they arose Science as a Means of Knowing based on some parts rationalism more on empiricism Rationalism: reason is supreme authority in matters of opinion, belief, or conduct o Doctrine that reason alone is a source of knowledge is not dependent on exp o All knowledge is expressible in selfevident propositions or their consequences Empiricism: knowledge only or primarily from sensory exp o fundamental to modern day scientific methodologies that hypotheses theories be tested with observations of the natural world Science as Induction 1. Facts are observed recorded 2. analysed, compared categorized 3. generalizations are inductively drawn as to the relations (empirical regularities) btwn them 4. Further research is either inductive or deductive, employing inferences from previously established generalizations Induction: inference of a generalized conclusion from instances Deduction: inference in which conclusion follows from general or universal premises Overall model Facts acquired through observation (induction) Laws theories Laws theories (deduction) Predictions explns Karl Popper Observation is always affected by prior theoretical conceptual commitments: o guided by presupposes theory o observation is thus theoryladen Theories cannot be estd as true in light of observational evidence Theories are constructed as speculative tentative conjectures freely created by the human intellect to overcome problems encountered by previous theories to give an adequate account of some aspects of the world Once proposed, speculative theories are to be rigorously ruthlessly tested by observation experiment Theories that conflict with empirical evidence must be eliminated (falsified) replaced by new theories Science progresses by trial error, by conjectures refutations Only fittest theories survive are tentatively temporarily accepted, until falsified Thomas Kuhn Scientists do not falsify theories in instant way specified by Popper Poppers idea of falsification operates at level of empirical hypotheses Cannot be maintained at level of broader theoretical structures or evolution of science as whole Paradigms The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962): argues that science evolves (not logically linear) through dramatic shifts in how scientists seeunderstand the world Coins term paradigm paradigm shift Paradigm: framework of accepted ideas in which one operates o might include ideas on truth, validity, methodology Facets to a Paradigm metaphysical paradigm: assumptions affecting way man views world place in it o include: fundamental assumptions about both phenomenal reality of space, time matter; religious or spiritual beliefs sociological paradigm: concrete scientific achievement that functions as a model or framework within which scientific research is conducted o Can Precede metaphysical paradigm
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