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History of Psychology Final Exam Review

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Western University
Psychology 3950F/G
Mark Cole

LECTURE 5: WUNDT AND VOLUNTARISM  „Father‟ of psychology – stimulated behaviourism and Gestalt psychology  Founded a laboratory in 1875 o Fully established in 1879 – denotes the birth of psychology Physiological psychology:  The “marriage” of physiology and psychology o Physiology: observations using the senses (echoes Locke) o Psychology: inner observation (echoes Plato and Descartes)  Published Volkerpsychologie (folk psychology) o Called social psychology today, but its main study was language  Founded/edited the journal philosophical studies (renamed psychological studies) o Probably first psychology journal The thought meter  Clock with pendulum that hits a bell at the extremes of its swings  Pendulum not seen at extremes when bell was heard  Not possible to have simultaneous attention to two modalities (sight, sound)  Thought the lag = time it took for central processing to occur Other Laboratory Research  Psychophysics o More research in Fechner tradition (loudness/sound pressure level, brightness/light intensity)  Sensory discreteness o Difference thresholds involving timing of events o Amount of time between 2 flashes of light you can detect 2 vs. 1 flashes o Foreshadows Gestalt work on apparent motion  Mental chronometry o Most unique to Wundt o Discriminated reaction time (requiring separate responses) added 1/10 of a second to normal reaction time o Extra delay attributed to central processing of the volitional choice (discriminating between the 2 stimuli) o The relationship between sounds and emotion – slow rates produce more tension than faster rates Wundt‟s Ideas about Psychology  Mediate vs. immediate experience o Mediate experience gained through external senses (e.g. vision)  May be further mediated by use of instruments  This information slightly distorted (Plato – didn‟t trust sensory experiences)  Approach mediate experience with caution since it is mediated – first by eyes, ears, etc. (necessary) and then by telescopes, glasses, etc. (instruments) o Immediate experience gained through direct examination of consciousness  Not mediated by anything (not even eyes/ears)  Can examine own consciousness without any mediation between you and the object (Descartes – can‟t be mistaken about own thoughts; I think therefore I exist)  Introspection (“the technique”) o Goal = to make introspection as precise as physiology data (reliability, validity) o Encouraged yes/no answers vs. „rambling on‟  Perception vs. apperception o Perception: ordinary, relatively mindless, responses to physical stimulation  Akin to reflexes  Not conscious/mindful – goes on because of the way the biological being is set up o Apperceptions: conscious attempts to process responses to physical stimulation o Wundt as a rationalist favoured apperception (vs. empiricists favouring perception) o Apperception combinations: “thinking, reflection, imagination, understanding” o 4 graduated processes:  Relating: recognizing one‟s experience of A is familiar due to prior experience with A (Aristotle‟s relation of memory)  Comparing: recognizing similarities/differences that underlie the connection  Higher level processing compared to relating  Synthesis and analysis even higher order  Synthesis: compound relating (cascade of relations)  Analysis: compound comparing (multiple comparisons from former and current relations) o Synthesis and analysis  imagination and understanding o But Doctrine of Apperception = apperceived experience is more than sum of separate elements  Foreshadows gestaltists  Requires an act of will (volunteerism aspect) Voluntarism  Sensations and ideas don‟t get associated automatically  Active mental effort on the part of the perceiver is required Criticisms  The act of observing conscious experience changes it (Kant) o In order to observe itself, the mind would have to divide itself into 2 parts – observer and observed (cannot be done)  Private events not open to public inspection (e.g., my experience of „red‟ may be different than yours)  Introspection really retrospection o Experience being observed not immediate, but rather only after some necessary delay o Nervous system takes time to function (e.g., reaction time) o Never dealing with present, always the past o How much of what is reported actually reality (vs. recollection)  Technique not natural o Natural observation suppressed o Lacked ecological validity LECTURE 6: WILLIAM JAMES AND FUNCTIONALISM  Father of „American psychology‟  Embraced the philosophy of pragmatism o Focused on the practical o Interested in the what for, not the what, of consciousness  His ideas became a school called functionalism  Functionalism themes: 1. A focus on operations of mental life 2. The adaptive nature of consciousness 3. A stress on the practical 4. Inclusion of children, animals, and those with abnormalities 5. Why (motivation) not what (introspection) 6. Individual differences in people 1) Consciousness  Experience viewed as a whole  Coined the term psychologist’s fallacy: a fallacy that occurs when an observer assumes that their subjective experience reflects the true nature of an event  Cannot be subdivided into temporal parcels (i.e. stream of consciousness)  4 characteristics: 1. Personal 2. Always changing 3. Continuous 4. Nonetheless selective  Consciousness functional, hence selected for evolutionarily (i.e., adaptive and had evolved) 2) Memory  Faculty theory: memory is like an organ – can be exercised and trained o Doesn‟t matter what you‟re lifting, as long as you‟re working the muscles o Prevailing theory of memory at the time  Association theory: memories involve the excitement of a brain area by another brain area  Argues for a general capacity for memory that varied from person to person  Probably some genetic component of memory, but also due to exercise of certain brain pathways  Rare empirical work by James on the matter – consulted actors (who memorize vast materials); practice didn‟t improve their memory, but their ability to study; adopted strategies that work for them  practice improves only specific memory/exercises only specific brain pathways 3) Habit  Another extension of the pathway view of neural functioning  Similar to Descartes‟ vital spirits through the veins  Habits important in daily routine o Functional in an evolutionary sense – don‟t have to think about the majority of our activities because we regulate many of them to habit 4) Emotion  James-Lange theory of emotion: „first we run and then become afraid‟  Emotions = a response to physical change, not vice versa  The beginning of behaviourism? 5) Will  The state of mind which led directly to behaviour (voluntary body movements)  More similar to habit than „will power‟ – muscles activated by motor cortex  Mind-body problem: thoughts can‟t accomplish anything/are powerless o Answer: will is beyond thoughts – an active turning from intention into action  Precursor to study of motivation LECTURE 7: FREUD Anna O. and the Beginning of Psychoanalysis  Anna O. = one of Joseph Breuer‟s patients o Her symptoms = paralysis of three limbs, sight/speech disturbances, food aversion, persistent nervous cough (hysteria) o Had several personalities (dissociative personality disorder) o Seemed to feel relief when talking about her distressing life with her father o Breuer‟s term for this release of emotion = catharsis; Anna called it „the talking cure‟ or „chimney sweeping‟  Anna O. hospitalized after Breuer ended her treatment, but recovered and eventually became the first social worker in Germany/one of the first in the world Charcot and Hysteria  Hysteria then attributed to a „wandering womb‟ (hysteron), and therefore viewed as organic and a uniquely female disorder  Freud found an example of a male hysteric – his paper not well received and created a schism between Freud and the rest of the medical profession  Freud initially used electric shocks to the afflicted organ (e.g., arm) – little success  Then turned to hypnosis – further distanced him from other doctors; not universally accepted  Realized a personal relationship was an indispensable part of therapy  Moved towards concentration method – patient laid down with eyes closed and attempted to recall memories associated with their symptoms  Evolved into free-association; all that remained from old hypnosis method was the therapeutic couch  First published the term psychoanalysis in an 1896 paper o Psychoanalysis = attempt to bring into consciousness repressed traumatic events that were causing pathology  The unwillingness of patients to report painful memories = resistance  Believed free association could uncover repressed memories  Writes about importance of slips of the tongue and omissions in speech  Initially thought the cause of neurotic anxiety was always sexual trauma o Thought anxiety symptoms were similar to coitus (e.g., breathing difficulties, sweating)  Eventually claimed all cases of hysteria were rooted in childhood seduction (sexual assault) by an adult, usually a male relative, and often a father o His argument: memories of such seductions were unrecoverable o Interpreted this as clear evidence of their truth and importance o This view “met with an icy reception”  Later decided that most childhood seductions had never occurred; reasons: o Too many analyses coming to satisfactory conclusions o Too much to believe that so many fathers were so perverse o The unconscious cannot distinguish fantasy and reality (primary process) – wouldn‟t know if it was real even if it did occur The Dream Work  Freud wanted to psychoanalyze himself but decided free association wouldn‟t work o Couldn‟t be both the associater and the interpreter – „the mind cannot observe itself‟ (Kant)  Settled on dream analysis (dream had already happened; could go back and look at it)  The Interpretation of Dreams = his longest and most important book  Manifest content (obvious content) of dreams stimulated by recent events – brief, nonsensical, easy to describe  Latent content (deeper, unconscious content) stimulated by conflicts/repressed material in the unconscious o Inferred from manifest content and Freud‟s knowledge about the patient‟s psyche  Dreams always about oneself (ego), even when they don‟t appear to be o Cardinal rude: the latent content of the dream is always about you even when the manifest content doesn‟t appear to be  The latent content of the manifest content might be as it appears, the opposite, or both  Dreams are very condensed (e.g., one person in a dream can represent more than one person/play more than one role)  One can never be sure when/if the dream analysis was complete  Identification: one person in the dream stands for two or more others related by a common feature  Composition: a person in the dream has features belonging to two or more real people  Inversion: a dream occurs backwards and must be interpreted as such  Dream symbols: include elongated objects representing the penis and enclosures like cupboards and vessels representing the vagina  Freud objected to the charge that all dreams call for sexual interpretation o Said he never wrote/said this, but difficult to find a dream analysis that did not include it The Theory of Personality  The psyche = the battleground where various forces were fighting  Dynamic theory because psychic energy (libido) created forces between/among the separate parts of the psyche  The instincts o Better thought of as drives; had:  A source (the bodily need creating the instinct)  An impetus (strength of the instinct)  An aim (elimination of the source/need)  An object (that which satisfies the need) o Divided the instincts into the life instincts (eros) such as hunger, thirst, and sex, and the death instincts (thanatos) such as aggression  The tripartite mind o Consciousness: what was being experienced at any given time (awareness of self, etc.) – small part of the psyche o Preconsciousness: that which could be recalled into consciousness easily (not always conscious, but can be brought into consciousness) o Unconsciousness: instincts and unacceptable impulses that had to be repressed (invented by Herbert, not Freud)  Another tripartite mind o Id (“it”)  Roughly equivalent to the unconscious  Repressed impulses and memories  Operated according to the pleasure principle and the primary process o Ego  Similar to Descartes‟ “I” – “I think, there I exist”  Unconscious and preconscious mind  Develops due to necessity  Operates according to the secondary process  Experiences neurotic anxiety when repressed memories/impulses threaten to enter consciousness  Neurotic anxiety at least temporarily dispelled by defense mechanisms (e.g., projection: unwanted thoughts/feelings attributed to someone else)  Attaches the libido to objects that can satisfy the id‟s demands – this attachment called object catharsis o Battle between ego and id – ego must make concessions to id, but id has to make concessions to ego as well o Superego  More like the id than the ego  Develops as a result of contact with the world of do‟s and don‟ts – „internalized rule book‟  Conscience: the repository of don‟ts; punishes the transgressions with guilt  Ego ideal: repository of do‟s; rewards compliance with pride  Often responsible for repression because it dictates do‟s and don‟ts  The horse and rider analogy o Similar to Plato‟s chariot analogy o Id: a horse (provides local motor energy) o Ego: the rider (guides the horse) o Sometimes the id gets out of control and the ego cannot control it – „runaway horse‟ o Leaves superego out of the analogy completely  Psychosexual development o Libido is discharged by:  Sucking in the mouth (oral stage)  Elimination/retention of feces (anal stage)  Masturbation (phallic stage)  Identification with one‟s same-sex parent (sexual orientation, attitudes, etc.)  Oedipal complex: boys believe they are afraid of their fathers because they are larger/stronger, but actually because they are jealous of their fathers due to their love for their mothers  Electra complex: girls identify with their mothers because they of jealous of their mothers and want to be with their fathers  Sublimated activities (latent stage) – change into a more socially acceptable way  When children are the most asexual/not interested in the opposite sex  Still there, but takes on indirect forms o Overstimulation/understimulation during the stages leads to fixation (e.g., aspects of the adult personality such as optimism/pessimism, generosity/stinginess, etc.) o Arrival at sexual maturity in a well-adjusted condition unlikely to happen in Freud‟s theory  Fame and death o The committee formed in 1913 to “guide the destiny of psychoanalysis”, consisted of 5 (later 6) members o Freud became increasingly famous from 1919-1939; died in 1939 Summary  Emphasized the importance of developmental history in adult personality – inaugurated the idea that the present is strongly influenced by the past  Was the father of motivation in many ways and stimulated many researcher‟s drive theories; the pleasure principle seems related to Thorndike‟s (and later Skinner‟s) law of effect  His emphasis on anxiety paved the way for a number of other psychologists  Was an unanswering determinist and argued for lawfulness in behaviour  Problem: his theory is non-scientific/not empirically testable LECTURE 8: BEHAVIOURISM  Darwin‟s theory opened the way for a “mindless” account of behaviour; concept of mind still not gone until 1920  Dewey‟s The Reflex Arc was the cornerstone  influential to a lot of people o How stimuli elicit responses automatically (no need for mediating/thinking/cognition) o Laid the basic idea open to a stimulus response psychology o Watson one of the first to take this task seriously Watson Instinct  Instincts actually learned habits; but children may have innate fears of loud noises/confined spaces  Looked for evidence of instincts in young children  studied grasp reflex o Found no handedness in infants/equal amount of left and right hand movements o Concluded handedness was not innate, but learned from parents Emotion  Argues with one aspect of James‟ theory of emotion o James: our perceptions lead to bodily changes, and those changes lead to emotions o Watson: the emotion WAS the visceral reaction, not a mental response to it  Assumed emotions were learned, not innate (e.g., infants showed no fear to various animals, water, or small bonfires)  But found fear, rage, and love to be present at a very young age o Fear (crying) to loud noises, sudden loss of support o Rage (body stiffening, slashing hand movements, holding breath) to restraint o Love (smiling, gurgling, cooing) to stroking, tickling, rocking, patting  Saw these emotions as UCR‟s that easily conditioned to any number of CS‟s  Watson & Raynor‟s famous study with Albert o Conditioned a fear response with a white rat o CS: loud noise, CR: white rate and other similar (furry) objects o Concluded all adult fears were CR‟s o Paved the way for behaviour therapy treatments of phobias Thinking  Separated humans from animals  Language – verbal habit reinforced by parents (entirely learned)  Speech is a chain – pronunciation of a word becomes the stimulus for the next word  Thinking = silent speech (not received well by others) o E.g., children talk out loud during solitary play o Only adult censure forced this talk “inside” o Censure eventually extends to lip movements while reading o Deaf/dumb individual show finger/hand movements while thinking (also censured) o Thus, thinking is speech driven “inside”  A problem for behaviorism: How then can thinking be measured? o Some thinking non-verbal, but most involv
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