Study Guides (248,120)
Canada (121,328)
Psychology (1,705)
Dr.Mike (231)

Learning Theories.docx

5 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Semester
Fall

Description
Learning Theories Edward L. Thorndike Ivan Petrovich Pavlov B.F. Skinner These 3 psychologists dominated the field of psychology  Formation of associations  Learning Principles – One vs. Two factor theories  Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning  Operant (Skinnerian) Conditioning  Observational Learning  Cognition & Learning Learning?  Learning is relatively permanent change in behavior which is independent of the effects of maturation and temporary factors such as Fatigue or Sensory adaptation  Not due to temporal factors (Aging) Difference in Theories Connectionist Cognatavistic All terms will tend towards Abstraction Single Factor Theories  Assertion is that one type of learning is predominant  One basic process or principle or principle underlies all forms of learning such as: o Principle of Contiguity  Response in the presence of a particular stimuli leads to learning through association  Strongly linked to Classical or Pavlovian conditioning  It is not entirely absent from the operant paradigm which may also be interpreted via contiguity o Principle of Reinforcement  Clark Hull’s Original Operant learning paradigm  Contention is that drive reduction is the motivating factor in learning (E.g., Hunger-eat-reduction of drive to eat)  An unconditioned stimulus (Something external) may also be interpreted as setting up a drive reduction situation Two Factor Theories (We cant account for all learning on the basis of one principle)  The most notable theorists who have utilized combination of Contiguity and Reinforcement in their theories are: Edward L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner  Joining contiguity and Reinforcement Law of Effect  States that a behavior followed by a satisfying consequence will become more likely to occur while a behavior followed by an unsatisfying outcome will become less likely to occur  Basis of Thorndike’s instrumental learning  Also became of foundation of Behaviorism Theoretical Language  Connectionist vs. Gestalt Vs. Cognativistic Connectionist o In connectionist terms the hypothetical unit “Learned” is either an “Association” or a “Habit” or a “Stimulus-Response Bond” o The view of association varies across theories. Some see it as gradual while others see it as “single” trial all or none event.  Extinction o In some theories it is viewed as the gradual weakening of an association o Other theories view an association as a permanent formation o In these latter theories extinction cannot occur  Rather than a process of gradual weakening, some theories postulate that what appears to be extinction is actually a consequence of “Counter-Conditioning”  Counter- conditioning is a process through which and existing association is Replaced by a newly formed association which produces a behavior which is antagonistic or incompatible with the behavior produced by the original association Gestalt Theories – the some of parts is greater than the whole  Edwards Chase Tolman is the father of this approach to learning  Contrary to association as the basic unit of learning Tolman postulated the theory of “Purposive Behavior” o His believe was that just watching individuals behavior, was too much attention to the parts and not enough attention to the whole, he believe behavior is organized around a specific goal  Consequently the behavior is controlled by Cognitive processes  The single most important contribution of this approach is LATENT learning  Latent Learning refers to the possibility that learning may occur unobserved (Learning which occurs without our ability to observe it) o Which is why behavior and learning is controlled by Cognitive processes, (they are not observable or verifiable)  So under certain changed in conditions, the unobserved learning may manifest itself as a sudden increased efficiency in performance  This view challenges or qualifies ALL views which rely on Drive Reduction as basis of learning  It sets the stage for Cognitive views Cognitive Theories  Cognitive approaches focu
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit