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Psychology Study Notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Lecture 1: History & Theories What is psychology? - explanations of behaviour - schools of psychology - pioneers Reading the Text - think about background information - survey titles/headings – BIG PICTURE IDEAS - outline the chapter - decide how much you will read - look at heading and ask what it’s about - look at layout for cue (BOLDED TERMS) - paraphrase section – key concepts/words - make summary notes - make up test questions Basic Time Management - identify your “best time” for study - study difficult subjects first - use distributed learning - make sure environment is supportive (find your best place) - set time for your social life - set time to sleep and eat - combine activities Explanations of Behaviour - can be explained on at least 3 different levels - each level addresses different mechanism - levels are not exclusive - no level is better than the other; it’s just a different aspect - 3 levels o environmental factors – noise levels, heat, cultural factors o psychological factors o biological factors - each has a different focus - when looking only at one level, behaviour is hard to explain; need to use all three different levels to analyze and explain it Psychology - broad definition - scientific study - what are the various factors that influence behaviour Some of the Schools in Psychology - functionalism o focuses on the function/significance of behaviour o how behaviour (mental processes help us to adapt) o primarily biological o function – evolutionary mechanism o how it works – adaptive significance of behaviour o modern examples  psychobiology, neuroscience, ethology - psychodynamic o Focus on unconscious experience… “The Mind” o look for unresolved conflicts o Importance of personality o conflict can be why behaviour is the way it is o development of personality follows development of unconscious o WE ARE INFLUENCED BY UNCONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE o examples  psychodynamic therapy, unconscious processing - Behaviourist o focus on behaviour, forget the “mind” o discuss how behaviour changes under various conditions o primarily environmental o how environment shapes behaviour o examples  learning theories, behaviour modification - Gestalt Tradition o focus on perception and experience o look at how people think and remember o consider everything in context o both biological and environmental o how we perceive/experience the world o how thought pattern is created by perception and experience o construct experience from perceptions o examples  cognition, info processing - Humanistic Tradition o focus on values and choice o help people fulfill potential o both biological and environmental o people are good and positive people o problems with behaviour are places the you are blocked from fulfilling your potential o examples  Carl Rogers therapy, the “self” Psychology - whatever psychologists do - types of research - 43% clinical, 11% counselling, 4% developmental, 5%education, 8% experimental, 7& industrial organization, 2% personality, 7% school, 4% social, and 9% others Pioneers of Psychology - people who started them off: o Rene Descartes – philosopher and mathematician, dualism  body works like a machine, reflex arc  body reacts to stimuli o Gustav Fechner – physicist and mathematician, sensation can be measured, father of psychophysics o Wihlem Wondt –founder of modern psychology, first psych lab – Leipzig, Germany, structuralism  believed possible to describe sensory elements o William James – psychologist at Harvard, disputed Wondt’s claim of first lab – claims he did it first, published first psychology textbook o Mary Calkins – trained by James, first woman “allowed” to study at Harvard medical school (but was denied degree), first woman president of APA o Sigmund Freud – medical doctor, believed that physical disorders could have a psychological base, father of psychoanalysis, the unconscious – get in touch with…created psychoanalysis to do that o Carl Jung – studied under Freud, broke ranks with Freud over disagreements of the sexual nature of personality, collective unconscious  unconscious that carries themes on o Carl Rogers – Humanistic approach, the “self” and unconditional positive regard, develops Rogerian Therapy, believes that “clients” (not patients) strive for positive goals, positive approach to “self” o Ivan Pavlor – Nobel prize for work of salivation, discovered that associations drive learning  classical conditioning o BF Skinner – behaviourist  operant conditioning, important association is stimulus and response, learning controlled by consequences o Jean Piaget – studied under Binet, suggests that children do not think like adults, steps on cognitive development o Karl Lashley – biology of learning and memory, searched for the “engram”…single location for memory, came to believe memory is distributed throughout cortex, used technique of lesioning – destroying specific brain tissue o Wilder Penfield – Montreal neurosurgeon, examines function of cortex through direct stimulation, maps cortical functioning in humans o Wolfgang Koher – Gestalt psych, studies problem solving in apes, learning can occur through insight o Kurt Levin – social psych who followed Gestalt tradition, behaviour occurs in cortex... a field with many forces directed toward the individual, mentors many famous psychologists (Festinger, Destsch, Baker) Themes - psychology is empirical - theoretically diverse – theory for everything - behaviour is determined by multiple causes - heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour - experience is subjective - psych evolves in a socio-cultural historical context – cultural norms, historical perspectives – influences Reflect - Levels of explanation address the issue of Global Warming? o Chemistry, physics…mild or serious? o attitudes need to changed – we’re a wasteful world –better energy conservation, environment – society  what we think about it, shapes the way we think, biological – personality can affect usage  ALL SHAPE HOW WE DEAL WITH ANY ISSUE Lecture 2: Methods Research Methods - scientific - research methods - designing a study Scientific Method - way to do empirical o Identify the problem and formulate hypothesis o design and execute the experiment o determine the truth o communicate the results 1. Identifying the Problem a. hypothesis – tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events b. theory: i. collection of hypothesis ii. an organizing system iii. more general, elaborate than single hypothesis iv. good theories generate good (testable) hypotheses; Theory of Relativity  compare: Freudian Theory and Behaviour Theory 1. long theories with implications 2. which one generates testable hypotheses  behaviour is better – more testable 2. Design and Execute Experiment a. identify variables – variables of concern b. independent – manipulated (different for different people) c. dependent – measured d. control – we want to say that independent causes dependent  without proper control, the experiment is confounded e. control factors to say that independent causes dependent 3. Determine the Truth a. do your results support the hypothesis? b. are there any real differences? 4. Communicate Results a. publish a report of the experiment in various journals b. present a verbal description of results at a convention (or talk) c. takes a while to publish results – do both d. discuss several replicated experiments in book chapter – so they know what was done…for better understanding Summary - psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of behaviour - to examine causal relations, they use the scientific method o form hypothesis, manipulate independent variables, measure dependent variables  if not causal statement o all extra variables should be controlled o if not, experiment is confounded and experimenter makes a mistake in causal explanation Research Methods - 5 most commonly used - not mutually exclusive o observational methods  collecting information about behaviour without trying to change it  non-participant or participant  try to understand what factors are important and what is happening o survey methods  collecting information about behaviour through surveys and questionnaires  self-report methods, not manipulating/influencing  paints a profile, but extremely carefully o case study methods  in-depth study of one individual  useful information about individuals  gives important details o correlation methods  determining the degree of relationship between 2 or more variables  looking at variables – not manipulating, looking at relationship between 2 factors or variables  can’t create causal statement o experimental methods  manipulating one or more variables to determine the effect on some behaviour  do experiment to make causal statement  the effect of ‘x’ (independent) on ‘y’ (dependent) Question - does TV violence cause aggression? 1. Can do observation – problem…correlational (measure/manipulate nothing)  social learning theory makes connection – see TV violence, increased levels = increased aggression 2. Experiment  between-groups design…the independent variable is manipulated between groups of participants (violent show = independent, aggression = dependent)  measure remains the same, may also have a control group 3. Within- group design  all subjects exposed to all conditions - PROBLEM: potential order effect – if everyone who comes in sees the same, it may have the same results – no control to compare -  need to counter balance - MEASURING AGGRESSION o self-report, verbal attack, physical attack, “safe” attack The relationship between independent and dependent variables - CAUSAL MODEL o independent variable causes dependent variable o theory  smiling  increased liking o operational  friends who smile = are better liked, friends who don’t smile = less well liked FAQ – David Myers - What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life? o maybe nothing, labs are to control things - Doesn’t behaviour depend on one’s culture, gender or personality? o behaviour always depends on these things - What do animal experiments tell us about human behaviour? o principles are similar to how humans behave - Is it ethical to experiment on humans/animals? o big concern, not hurting, its useful information, guiding principles Research Methods - observation - survey - case study - correlation - experiment  Mean, Median, Mode, Range = on exam Reflect & Think - consumer products Lecture 3: Biological Bases Neurons - neural communication - how do neurons work - neural communication - the synapse Neuron - cell body - dendrites - receiving end, signals come in - nodes or Ranvier – allows axons to access fluid outside - axon – covered by myelin sheath - myelin sheath –allows for faster speed of conduction - axon terminal – communication Classify by Shape - multipolar – most structures - bipolar - 2 poles, dendritic and axon - unipolar – connected to single conjugate Classify by function - Sensory neurons o afferent fibres – from outside into CNS - motor neurons o efferent fibres – CNS to outside (connect with muscle/gland) - inter neurons o relay stations – take info from neurons and pass it on in the chain ** neurons work by generating an electrical potential; result of chemical charges **how does a cell produce electrical charges? The Action Potential - understand different phases - GRAPH: o -70mV = ionic concentrations (resting potential) o apply stimulation, charge changes (goes to zero = more positive charge) o this is called depolarization, hits threshold of -55mV, influx of sodium, charge continues to go up to +40mV o then repolarization occurs (charge drops back to RP), then drops below and comes back o signal that goes to other neurons - Absolute Refractory Period o peak of +4-mV to -70mV o first peak = absolute – nothing can stimulate the neuron (hasn’t recovered yet), after it bottoms out = relative – can stimulate, but needs a stronger than normal stimulus - 3 phases - starts as chemical battery, and the chemicals result as a signal that measure  neural signal Neural Communication - you can see AP in axons  Aps only happen in axons - axon – action potential travels down it - spreads down axon to synaptic knob - occurs where axons meets the body; axon hillock then propagates down the axon - in cell body = graded potential – electrical activity - action potential = all-or-none - graded can change; subtle change, transmitted down axon hillock Coding Intensity - neuron fires on all-or-none fashion - height of “spike” is fixed, generates on or doesn’t - when AP is generated, it spikes at +40mV and a stronger stimulus won’t matter - HOW? o neurons have different thresholds o stronger stimulus = more neurons o intensity directly proportional to firing frequency How do Cells Communicate? - through the reflex arc - communicate with one another to create an action potential - neurons do not touch one another Inferring the Synapse - Sherrington’s Experiment - stimulates reflex arc and measures response - predict – if it was an electrical circuit - when communication happens- chemical synapse - synaptic vessels play important role in synapse; they hold the chemicals - chemicals in vessels are called neurotransmitters - they diffuse across the gap - pre and post synaptic receptors sites (different shapes for different molecules)  neuron can go in at specific receptor sites – same shape characteristics – they lock in and response happens - gap gets cleaned through re-uptake - re-uptake  some still left after, and the chemicals neutralize and clean up the gap that was missed by re-uptake - Na+ channels open, making post synaptic more positive - depolarized post synaptic membrane or an EPSP = excitatory post-synaptic potential – possibility of excitation/generation as spreads, but not while in post - if K+ opens = hyperpolarization, IPSP = inhibitory post-synaptic potential Neurotransmitters - Norepinephrine (NE) – inhibitory and excitatory, arousal & eating - Acetylcholine (aCh) – excitatory and inhibitory, memory motor, behavioural and inhibition - Dopamine (DA) – inhibitory and excitatory, voluntary movement & arousal - serotonin (5-HT) – inhibitory and excitatory, sleep, mood & thermalregulation - Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) – inhibitory, motor behaviour Drug Effects - increased or decreased levels of transmitter - processes that terminate - transmitter action stimulates and blocks o cocaine –stimulated release of DA, prevents re-uptake o curane – blocks receptor site for aCh o black widow venom – stimulates release of aCh o nicotine – stimulates receptor molecules, “duplicates” effects of aCh o caffeine – blocks adenosine receptor sites Summary - all neurons fire (generate action potentials) o all-or-none - Excitatory vs. Inhibitory o afferent transmitters o influence receptor sites - excitatory neurons & inhibitory neurons o depolarizes post synaptic membrane (EPSP) o hyperpolarizes (IPSP) - EPSP and IPSP are additive across space and time o graded potentials - “Constant” inhibition effectively “raises” threshold o shut down/ turn off - a single neuron might synapse with many others o can be thousands o can be inhibitory or excitatory The Brain - gross brain anatomy - cortical organization - lateralization and split brain The Brain - corpus callosum - cerebral cortex - cerebellum - spinal cord “Old” Brain - thalamus - midbrain - pons - cerebellum - basal ganglia Basal Ganglia Area - amygdala - thalamus - hippocampus  LIMBIC SYSTEM BACK - pineal gland - putamen - hippocampus - hypothalamus - amygdala - thalamus  LIMBIC SYSTEM FRONT Corpus Callosum - 200 million fibres - connects the 2 hemispheres and allows communication between them Cortex - divided into four main regions o parietal lobe o frontal lobe o temporal lobe o occipital lobe - left and right are functionally different, not in the structure Projection Areas - frontal – motor area (towards centre) – primary motor cortex, any movement (voluntary) - parietal – somatosensory area – sensation (taste, body, balance, vestibular system) - occipital – visual – primary visual cortex - temporal – auditory – auditory signals processed, sent and decoded - each has consistent characteristics o topographic representation o contralateral control o functional assignment of space Motor Cortex - map of body parts going along it - if start inside central fissure – inside started at bottom and you move up to facial area - from bottom to top - not equal amount of space devoted (more important means more space) How do we get that information? - scan intact brain - evidence from brain damage - direct stimulation from cortex Scans - angiogram – x-rays enhanced with dye - CAT scan – x-rays from 360 degree rotation - MRI – expose to strong magnetic field - PET scan – inject radioactive glucose Other Areas - motor association area - somatosensory association area - visual association area - all located next to primary area – so they are connected - integrate and interpret is function of these areas Neural Disorders - apraxia – inability to perform smooth actions - agnosia – inability to interpret sensory information - aphasia – speech, difficulty in stringing words together, telegraphic o Brocha’s – expressive; frontal lobe o Wernicke’s – receptive  difficulty understanding; temporal lobe Lateralization and Split Brain - 2 hemispheres – both are lateralized (specialized in specific areas) - left: o verbal o language o reading o logical thought - right: o non-verbal o space o form o synthesis o emotion - not a dramatic difference - Split Brain o corpus callosum = severed o left visual field projects to right hemisphere o right visual field projects to left hemisphere o split brain means no access to the other side Lecture 4: Behavioural Genetics Genetics - gene action - dominant and recessive traits - polygenetic effects - heritability - evolution Genetics of Behaviour - nature (something we’re born with) vs. nurture (something we learn) - behaviour is a combination – how much contributes is a different story Genes - strand-like molecules of DNA - linked on chromosomes - karyotype = genetic blueprint - DNA is a building block - seen genetic blueprint off of chromosomes - humans= 23 (22 autosomes + 1 sex chromosome) - RNA (provides template for DNA)  protein molecules (sequence of amino acids) - the influence of genes is through protein synthesis…there are no genes “for” a particular attribute - gene “for” intelligence – reaction time (how fast you can respond to a stimulus) - So why not just answer nature? (GENES CODE FOR EVERY ATTRIBUTE) - environment can influence protein synthesis vas well - genes determine range of possibilities, but not degree of expression - not just genetic material; everything can influence protein synthesis Critical Period - environment exposure at specific interval is critical or the behaviour may never develop at all - genes and environment act in a continuous fashion Important to Distinguish - genotype – set of genes inherited - phenotype – outward expression of genotype (characteristics/behaviours) - genotype is actual genetic material - very different - genotype doesn’t have to lead to phenotype; you cannot infer phenotype from genotype - outward characteristics may not indicate underlying genetic attribution (hair colour) - you can modify phenotypic expression Locus - one from mom and one from dad - same = homo, different = hetero - homozygous alleles- phenotypic outcome is predictable, heterozygous, not so much - dominant – produces effect in either homo or hetero, the other allele won’t matter - recessive – produces effect in only homozygous mode – need both alleles - not always the case (one or the other), sometimes you get a blend Polygenetic Effects - traits related to action of more than one gene or chromosome o heritability  estimate of how much observed variability due to genetic factors alone - taps relative contribution of genes to overall variation in population - applies to groups, not individuals - - consider o calculation of area, hair colour in Inuit - heritability applies to groups – NOT INDVIDUALS - h2 – increases as genetic adversity increases - h2 – decreases as environmental diversity increases - differences between groups are due entirely to environmental H2 of Intelligences - notion seems reasonable (due to reaction time), but remember; environment can alter what seems to be internally coded traits Heritability of Intelligence - have to look at people who are related – share same genetic karyotype - family-relationship studies (people separated and then reunited) - consider Bouchard  Jim Lewis and Jim Springer Galton: Hereditary Genius - 1869 – relatives of intelligent people – the relatives are intelligent too, really was under gene control - adopted sons were not - measure simple motor and sensory ability (reaction time) - believes that intelligence was unitary – all in one (mental quickness) - totally under genetic control - develops correlation coefficient - results were disappointing Sir Cyril Burt - large scale study of twins reared apart - looks like huge genetic component – believes that intelligence is under genetic control - separate intelligent and unintelligent - wanted things to show genetics – faked results Genetic Disorders - coding produces disorder from faulty information o how many genes?  early estimate = 100,000  genome project= 25,000 o five to seven of these are defective Single Gene Disorders - PKU o recessive gene on autosome 12 o occurrence: 1 in 10,000 o lack on enzyme the converts Phenylalanime to Tyrosme o results in brain damage and severe mental retardation o effectively treated by diet - Tay Sachs Disease o recessive gene on pair 15 o occurrence: 1 in 3600 o lack of enzyme that breaks down fatty acids o 1 in 30 Canadian’s are carriers o distinctive appearance o normal development then… deaf, blind, unable to swallow o muscle atrophy, mental impairment o fatal by age 4 - Huntington’s Disease o rare dominant gene on autosome pair 4 o occurrence: 1 in 16000 o onset: 35-45 years o have to do genetic testing, at first clumsy and forgetful o marked by progressive deterioration o NOTE:  dominant – offspring has 50% chance of acquiring  detection possible through gene mapping Sex Linked Disorders - found on XX or XY - men are more susceptible then woman - the Y chromosome is shorter – less genetic info - baldness, red-green colour blindness, haemophilia Chromosome Disorders - sex chromosomes - normal is XX or XY - can get: XXX, X, XXY or XYY - Down Syndrome o 1 extra chromosome on 21 pair o marked by nervous system abnormalities, mild to moderate retardation, shorter life expectancy, physical appearance o due to an accumulation of protein o NOTE:  can allertiate symptoms with intense cognitive stimulation  not hereditary  incidences related to mother’s age Evolution - we select for genes that will help us survive - Darwin – the way humans adapt and change to environment - natural selection Adaptation - changing to meet environmental needs o functionalist - proximal vs. distal causes - genetic code was too tight and environment wasn’t conducive = dead - we have to have change; its constant - proximal – immediate mechanisms - distal – evolutionary processes Tinbergen: What Causes Aggression? - Given that an adult animal fights now and then, what makes each outburst happen? PROXIMAL - How had the animal, as it grew up, developed this behaviour? - how has the species we observe today acquired the particular behaviour ? DISTAL - note: o functional approach very powerful – ultimately due to genes… but… phenotype does not equal genotype o traits are not necessarily due to natural selection No Natural Selection - genetic drift o Founder Effect..chance - correlates of structure o other related trait selected Aggression - Innate? o possibly o Freud – Light vs. Darkr o Lorenz – hydraulic model  aggressive instinct builds up over time until “triggered” by some external stimulus Lorenz - so much build up – must aggress - aggression is particular stimulus - releasers/ sign stimuli and engage in aggressive behaviour - fixed action pattern Reflect and Think - possibly – Burk – weapons act as releasers for Human aggression  Human aggression hypothesis - when you’re ready to aggress and you see a weapon, it acts as a releaser Lecture 5: Sensation and Perception Sensation - psychophysics - subliminal perception - sensory systems - How do we perceive the world around us? o psychophysics and psychophysiology Psychophysics - relation between physical and psychological response - measure physical stimuli - what intensity of light coming in and coming out (intensity of vision) - Fechner; “father” of psychophysics - can determine a just noticeable difference (JND) - impossible to measure exact psychological intensity Threshold - value of a stimulus characteristics required to produce some response - absolute lower limit Absolute Thresholds - vision – candle flame at 50km - hearing – tick of a watch at 6km - taste – tsp. of sugar in 8L of water - smell – 1 drop of perfume in a 6 room apartment - touch – wing of a fly falling on check from 1cm Threshold - difference: amount of change for JND - what is the relationship? o EG Brightness and perceived brightness o NOT A 1 to 1 RELATIONSHIP Weber’s Law - size of difference threshold relative to physical intensity of test is constant - knowing the constant allows you to predict other JND’s - rearrange to solve ( I/ I = C) - Note: o the value of JND is not constant, but the relative difference is o compare the sensitivity of different systems  the smaller the better  vision (brightness) = 1/60  kinesthesis (weights) = 1/50  pain (thermal) = 1/30  audition (pitch, mood) = 1/10  pressure (skin) = 1/7  smell (Indian rubber) = ¼  taste (salt) = 1/3 Fechner’s Law - sensation increases with the logarithm of intensity, not directly though - S = kLogI - more general and cognitively economic (log function) – if we code thing in linear, need enormous brain function, log = simplified Steven’s Power Law - S = kLogI^N - more predictive across a variety of systems - doesn’t have to be a log function - know Weber’s law calc. – know others but not calculations Subliminal Perception - claim that we can subliminally learn information - can we perceive stimuli that are below threshold? - is our behaviour affected by subliminal stimuli? - James Vicary (1957) o claimed 50% increase in popcorn sales o concerned about the use of subliminal cuts o he lied  fake results - people put subliminal messages in ads - in general, no evidence that subliminal cuts influence behaviour - but consider Bruce & Valentine (1986)  priming o may be able to influence you o showed people pictures of famous faces – shown a prime before Sensory Systems - Accessory Structures o out
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