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Psychology chapter 6.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology: Chapter 6 Review Notes: States of Consciousness The Puzzle of Consciousness  Consciousness often is defined as our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment o Subjective and private, no one will know what one is thinking o Dynamic (ever-changing) we experience consciousness as a continuously flowing “stream” of mental activity, rather than as disjointed perceptions and thoughts o Self-reflective and central to our sense of self, the mind is aware of its own consciousness o Intimately connected with the process of selective attention Measuring States of Consciousness  Most common measure is self-report, where people describe their inner experience o Not always verifiable  Physiological measures establish the correspondence between bodily states and mental processes Levels of Consciousness: Psychodynamic and Cognitive Perspectives  Freud proposed that there are three levels of awareness. o Conscious mind contains thoughts, perceptions and other mental events which we are currently aware o Preconscious mental events are outside current awareness, but can easily be recalled under certain conditions o Unconscious events cannot be brought into conscious awareness under ordinary circumstances  Content: unacceptable urges, desires, sexual and aggressive drives, traumatic memories and threatening emotional conflict, kept out of consciousness The Cognitive Viewpoint  Reject the notion of an unconscious mind driven by instinctive urges and repressed conflicts  Conscious and unconscious mental life as complementary forms of information processing Controlled versus automatic processing  Controlled (effortful) processing: the voluntary use of attention and conscious effort o E.g. moving hand, walk  Automatic processing: performed with little or no conscious effort o E.g. breathing, heart rate o Important with practice, one can execute highly complex skills with a minimum of conscious thought o Disadvantage: reduce our chance to finding new ways to approach problems Divided attention  Divided attention: ability to perform more than one activity at the same time o E.g. walk and talk  Have some serious negative consequences: o Collision rate increase when driver is talk on the phone while driving The Emotional Unconscious  Psychodynamic view that the unconscious mind can influence behaviour and mood  Sometimes we feel sad but we don‟t know why, psychologist believe that it is the unconscious doing it The Modular Mind  Modules are information-processing subsystems or “networks” within the brain that perform tasks related to sensation, perception, memory, problem solving, emotion, motor behaviour, and so on Circadian Rhythms: Our Daily Biological Clocks  Circadian rhythms: daily biological cycles o Body temperature, certain hormonal secretions and other bodily functions undergo a rhythmic change that affects our mental alertness and readies our passage back and forth between states of wakefulness and sleep Keeping time: Brain and Environment  Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN): regulate circadian rhythms, are located in the hypothalamus  Melatonin: a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body, located in pineal gland  SCN reduce the pineal gland‟s secretion of melatonin in the day, raising body temperature and heightening alertness  SCN at night are inactive allowing melatonin level to rise and promoting relaxation  Without the sun, we run on a 25hour clock instead of 24 hours Early Birds and Night Owls  Some people are morning people get up early, get their best functions during the morning mostly in old people and some people are night people where they perform the best during afternoon and evenings usually in 18 – 30years olds Environmental Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms  Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a cyclic tendency to become psychologically depressed during certain months of the year o they are sensitive to light, need light to wake up  Jet lag: result from flying o People adjust faster when flying west  Night shiftwork: when they work at night… o Very hard to get the timing right, no work might spend time with family during the day, screws up the biological clock  Daylights savings time can disrupt our circadian rhythms and our behaviours. It is more prone for accidental deaths when we miss 1 hour of sleep in the spring time change Sleep and Dreaming  We spend about 1/3 of our life sleeping  Circadian rhythms do not regulate sleep directly Stages of Sleep  Roughly 90 minutes per cycle  Beta waves: when awake, high frequency, 15 – 30 waves per second (cps) has a low “amplitude”  Alpha waves occur at about 8 to 12 cps, relaxed and drowsy Stage 1 through Stage 4  Stage 1, brain waves slow down, theta waves comes in 3.5 to 7,5 cps  When sleep spindles appear, rapid brain wave activity 12 to 15 cps, we are in stage 2  Stage 3, more relaxed, heart rate are slower, harder to wake up, here comes some delta waves, 0.5 to 2 cps  When delta wave dominate in EEG, it is stage 4 o Slow wage sleep: waves are slow  60 to 90 minutes you will have completed a cycle of stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 then a different sleep stage occurs REM sleep REM Sleep  REM sleep: rapid eye movements  Dreams occur during REM sleep more often than other stages (dream dominant)  REM period becomes longer and longer after each cycle  REM has similar brain wave as when we are awake  We might be physically aroused Getting a Night’s Sleep: Brain and Environment  Areas at the base of the forebrain called basal forebrain and within the brain stem are particularly important in regulating our falling asleep  Different brain stem area is responsible for REM sleep  Environment can have effect on sleep, jet lag, seasons, night shifts How much do We Sleep  Newborn sleep about 16 hours and half is in REM sleep  As we age we sleep less, 15 to 24 sleep about 8.5 and elderly adults average just under 6 hours  REM sleep time decrease dramatically during infancy and early childhood, but remains relatively stable after  Time on 3-4 declines  We need about 8 – 10 hours of sleep per night Sleep Deprivation  Not enough sleep  Short-term total sleep deprivation: up to 45 hours no sleep  Long term total sleep deprivation: more than 45 hours no sleep  Partial deprivation: no more than 5 hours per night for one or more consecutive nights  Mood suffered the most and all three types of sleep deprivation have an impact Why Do We Sleep  Restoration model: sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allow us to recover from physical and mental fatigue  Some people believe that we need to recharge but we do not know what is being recharged  Evolutionary/circadian sleep models emphasize that sleep\s main purpose is to increase a species‟ chance of survival in relation to tis environmental demands  Dangerous to hunt at night, so we sleep, and conserve some energy and hunt during the day which is safer  REM-rebound: tendency to increase REM because it is being deprived  REM is important in learning and memory consolidation Sleep Disorders Insomnia  Insomnia refers to chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep or experiencing restful sleep  Most common sleep disorder 10 – 40% of people  Has biological and psychological and environmental causes  Treatment: stimulus control, link bed with sleep, don‟t eat or study in the bed room Narcolepsy  1/2000 suffer  Narcolepsy involves extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks that may last from less than a minute to an hour  Goes right into REM sleep, does not matter how much they slept that night  Accident prone, sudden loss control of muscles, collapsing on the ground  No cure, can use stimulants to case alertness REM-Sleep Behaviour Disorder  REM-sleep behaviour disorder (RBD): in which the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM sleep paralysis is absent  Many physical display during the night, e.g. kicking, punching  Cause is unknown Sleepwalking  Typically occurs during stage 3 or 4 of slow-wave sleep  No memory of this happening  Can be inherited, daytime stress, alcohol can be causes  Treatment: psychotherapy, drugs, and routinely awakening children before the time they typically sleepwalk Nightmares and Night Terrors  Nightmares are frightening dreams and virtually everyone has them, occur in REM  Night terrors (sleep terrors) are more intense than nightmares  Usually child, suddenly sits up and seems to awaken and then let out blood-curdling scream  No memory of the episode  Night terror most common in stag
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