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Psychology chapter 8.docx

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology: Chapter 8 Review Notes: Memory  Memory refers to the process that allow us to record and later retrieve experiences and information  H.M. had his hippocampus and surrounding brain tissue removed to reduce epileptic seizures. After they were removed, he have no short term memory Memory as Information Processing  Encoding: refers to getting information into the system by translating it into a neural code that your brain processes e.g. type on computer  Storage: involves retaining information over time e.g. computer stores files  Retrieval: process that allow us to pull information out of storage when we want to use it Three-Component Model  Sensory input → Sensory registers → Encoding/Attention → (rehearsal) Working (short-term) memory → Encoding → long term memory  Long term memory → retrieval → Working (short term) memory  Three major components: sensory memory, short-term or “working” memory, and long- term memory Sensory Memory  Sensory memory holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized  Sensory registers: initial information processors o Visual sensory register is called iconic store o Auditory sensory register is called echoic store o Echoic memory lasts longer than iconic memory Short-term/Working Memory  Most of the information from sensory memory fades away, only selected few enters the STM (short term memory), which holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time  AKA working memory because it consciously processes, codes and “works on” information Memory codes  There are different ways that our brain codes for things that we see and hear  Mental image (visual encoding), code something by sound (phonological encoding), focus on the meaning of a stimulus (semantic encoding)  Memory code often does not correspond to the form of the original stimulus Capacity and duration  STM can hold limited amount 7 ± 2 (5 to 9) meaningful items  Chunking is combining individual items into larger units of meaning  Without rehearsal, the STM is very short lasts about 20 seconds  With rehearsal we can maintain the information in STM for a long time e.g. repeating telephone number before dialing  Maintenance rehearsal: simple repetition of information  Elaborative rehearsal involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other thing we already know  Maintenance is good to keep in STM, elaborative is good for keeping in LTM Long-Term Memory (LTM)  LTM is our vast library of more durable stored memories  Serial position effect: recall is influenced by a word’s position in a series of items.  Primacy effect: first few word can easily be rehearsed and enters the LTM  Recency effect: the last few words not been dump out of the STM Encoding: Entering Information  The more effective we encode material into LTM, the greater the likelihood of retrieving it Effortful and Automatic Processing  Effortful processing: encoding that is initiated intentionally and requires conscious attention  Automatic processing: encoding that occurs without intention and requires minimal attention e.g. reading Levels of Processing: When Deeper Is Better  Structural encoding (shallow) : notice only how the word looks, noticing the information  Phonological (phonemic) encoding (deeper): hearing the information  Sematic encoding (deepest): paying attention to what the information means  Levels of processing: the more deeply we process information, the better it will be remembered Exposure and Rehearsal  Need to employ effortful, deep processing to remember factual stuff  Shallow exposure to a stimulus do not guarantee long term retention  With rehearsal we can put stimulus into our LTM  Elaborative rehearsal allows us to relate to everyday life, more organized easier to be put into LTM Organization and Imagery  Imposing organization on a set of stimuli is an excellent way to enhance memory  More organized the information, the better to memorize Hierarchies of Chunking  If we have a structured way of looking at things like a flow chart, then it is easier to remember stuff, because we always follow the set rules to remember every time  Chunking is a good way to organize information, combining them into larger units, i.e. we can remember 5-9 letter, we can remember 5-9 words, and words will contain more info. Mnemonic Devices  Mnemonics refers to “the art of improving memory”, to aid memory (hierarchies and chunking)  Acronyms is a good way to remember information Visual Imagery  Dual coding theory: encoding information using both codes (verbal codes and non-verbal codes (visual)) enhances memory, two is better than one  Abstract concepts are easier to encode semantically than visually How Prior Knowledge Shapes Encoding  LTM is densely populated with semantic codes that has meaning of information Schemas: Our Mental Organizers  Schema is a “mental framework” an organized pattern of thought about some aspect of the world, such as a class of people, events, situations, or objects  Giving a general picture of what the upcoming stimuli going to mean, giving us a better understanding and can use prior knowledge to shape encoding  Schemas create a perceptual set, which is a readiness to perceive to organize and interpret information in a certain way Schemas, Encoding, and Expertise  Expert knowledge can be viewed as a process of developing schemas  When one is an expert for the presenting stimuli, they can remember more than the novices, because from their memory, they know the information, forming a schemas so that they encode and retrieve information faster Storage: Retaining Information Memory is a Network  Memory are formed by associations between new information and other items already in memory Associative Networks  Associative network: a massive network of associated ideas and concepts  With any given two words we can associate many things  Priming refers to the activation of one concept (or one unit of information) by another Neural Networks  Neural networks: each concept is represented by a particular pattern or set of nodes that becomes activated simultaneously o E.g. node 4, 20 and 40  AKA parallel distributed processing models (PDP) Types of Long-Term Memory  We possess several long-term memory systems that interact with one another Declarative and Procedural Memory  Declarative memory involves factual knowledge and includes two subcategories  Episodic memory is our store of factual knowledge concerning personal experiences: when where, and what happened in the episode of our lives  Semantic memory represents general factual knowledge about the world and language, including memory for words and concepts  Procedural memory (nondeclarative memory) is reflected in skills and actions o H.M. doesn’t remember doing them but his brain knows and he can do it better and better after each trail Explicit and Implicit Memory  Explicit memory involves conscious or intentional memory retrieval, as when you consciously recognize or recall something o Recognition requires us to decide whether a stimulus is familiar o Cue recall are hints given to aid the recall  Implicit memory occurs when memory influences our behaviour without conscious awareness o H.M. doing the tests, his doesn’t recall but his brain knows o E.g. priming tasks Retrieval: Accessing Information  Retrieval cue is any stimulus, whether internal or external that stimulates the activation of information stored in LTM The Value of Multiple and Self-Generated Cues  Having multiple self-generated retrieval cues was the most effective approach to maximizing recalling  Associating with personal meaningful stuff helps one to remember things better, enhance memory The Value of Distinctiveness  In general, distinctive stimuli are better remembered than non-distinctive ones Flashbulb Memory: Fogging up the Picture?  Flashbulb memories are recollections that seem so vivid, so clear, that we can picture them as if they were a snapshot of a moment in time o These memories may or may not be accurate, but it seems to be very accurate to the person  Over time the flashbulb fades  Confident does not reflect accuracy directly Context, State, and Mood Effects on Memory  Encoding specificity principle: states that memory is enhanced when conditions present during retrieval match those that were present during encoding Context-Dependent Memory: Returning to the Scene  Context-dependent memory: it typically is easier to remember something in the same environment in which it was acquired o Study in a quite environment when preparing for exam because exam rooms are quite State-Dependent Memory: Arousal, Drugs, and Mood  State-dependent memory proposes that our ability to retrieve information is greater when our internal state at the time of retrieval matches our original state during learning o Be in the same state as when studyin
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