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Psych1000- Chapter 11; Development over the Life Span.docx

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Psychology 1000
Erica Lawson

CHAPTER 11: DEVELOPMENT OVER THE LIFE SPAN MAJOR ISSUES AND METHODS - Developmental psychology examines changes in out biological, physical, psychological and behavioural processes as we age - 4 broad issues guide much of the research 1.) Nature and Nurture: - What extent is our development the product of heredity (nature) or the product of environment (nurture), how do they interact 2.) Critical and Sensitive Periods: - Are some experiences especially important at particular ages? - A critical period: an age range in which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path - A sensitive period: is an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development will still be possible 3.) Continuity vs. Discontinuity: - Is development continuous and gradual, or discontinuous, progressing through qualitatively distinct stages 4.) Stability vs. Change: - Do our characteristics remain consistent as we age? - Developmental psychologists address these issues by plotting (describing) developmental functions that portray how different processes change with age - 5 Developmental functions (A) No change—an ability present at or before birth that remains relatively constant across the lifespan (e/g. the ability to discriminate high from low pitched sounds, or to see objects as distinct from their background (B) Continuous change (continuity)—an ability not present, or very immature at birth that develops gradually over months or years and then remains constant over age (e.g. certain types of intelligence) (C) Stages (discontinuity)—an ability that progresses in stages, with relatively rapid shifts from a lower level to a higher level of performance (e.g. motor development, the shift from crawling to standing to walking, in cognitive development, the shift from non- verbal thought to symbolic thinking involving words (D) Inverted U-Shaped Function—an ability that emerges after birth, peaks and disappears with age (e.g. separation anxiety, visual acuity across the lifespan) (E) U-Shaped Function—an ability that is present early in life, disappears temporarily and re-emerges later (e.g. newborns turning towards off-centered sound and stepping with support - Developmental psychologists use special research designs - Cross-Sectional Design: compare ppl of different ages at the same point in time - Test each person once and compare how well the different age groups perform - Widely used because data from many age groups can be collected quickly - Key drawback is that the different age groups, called cohorts, grew up different historical periods - Longitudinal Design: repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older - Everyone exposed to same historical frame - Time consuming, and as years pass our sample may shrink substantially as ppl move, drop out of the study or die - Sequential Design: combines the two approaches - Can repeatedly test several age cohorts as they grow older and determine whether they follow a similar developmental pattern—most comprehensive, but most costly and time consuming PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT - Consists of 3 stages of physical growth - The germinal stage: first 2 weeks of development, beginning when the sperm fertilizes the egg –fertilized egg is call a zygote - Through repeated cell division the zygote becomes a mass of cells that attaches to the mother‘s uterus about 10-14 days after conception th - The embryonic stage extends from the end of the second week through the 8 week after conception, and the cell mass is now called an embryo - Two life support structures, the placenta and the umbilical cord, develop at the start of this stage - Located on the uterine wall, the placenta contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mother‘s blood to the umbilical cord - In turn the umbilical cord contains blood vessels that carry these nutrients and oxygen to the embryo, and waste products back from the embryo to the mother - Supplied with nutrients, embryonic cells divide rapidly and become specialized - Bodily organs and systems begin to form, and by week 8 the heart of the two-cm long embryo is beating, brain forming, and facial features such as eyes can be recognized th - At the 9 week after conception the embryo is called a fetus - During is fetal stage, which lasts until birth, muscles become stronger and other bodily systems continue to develop - At about 24 weeks the eyes open, and by 28 weeks the fetus attains the age of viability, meaning it is likely to survive outside the womb in case of premature birth GENTICS AND SEX DETERMINATION - Father‘s genetic contribution determines the sex of the baby rd - 23 pair of chromosomes determines the baby‘s sex , - Women carry only X men carry XY, thus the 23 chromosome in the sperm is in about X in have the cases and Y in the others - The y chromosome contains a specific gene known as the TDF gene, that triggers male sexual development - The union of an egg with a sperm cell having a y chromosome results in and XY combination and therefore a boy - A perm containing an X chromosome proceeds and XX combination and a baby girl - If a Y chromosome is present, its TDF gene initiates the development of testes at roughly 6-8 weeks after conception - Testis-determining factor - Once from testes secrete hormones called androgens that continue to direct a male pattern of organ development - If the TDF gene is not present as happens with an XX pair on the 23 rd chromosome, testes do not from and the absence of sufficient androgen activity during this prenatal critical period—inherent female pattern of organ development ensues ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES - Genetic blueprint sets forth a path of prenatal development, but nature and nurture become intertwined to influence physical and behavioural development even before birth - Embryo and fetus receive their nutrients from the mother, severe maternal malnutrition is associated with a greater risk of miscarriage, premature birth, stillbirth, smaller birth size, and impaired prenatal development - Teratogens (malformed) are environmental agents that cause abnormal prenatal development - Placenta prevents many dangerous substances from reaching the embryo and fetus but some harmful chemical molecules and diseases do pass through and can result in brain damage, blindness, deafness, infections and even fetal death in some children depending on the virus - Stress hormones can also cross the placenta - Prolonged maternal stress is associated with increase risk of premature birth, infant irritability, and attention deficits - Mercury, lead, radiation, and many other toxins also produce birth defects as do some drugs - Nicotine is a teratogen and maternal smoking and second hand smoke does increase risk of miscarriage, premature birth and low birth weight - More severe effects are found in babies of mothers who regularly used heroin or cocaine during pregnancy---born addicted and go through withdrawal after birth - Many show deficits in cognitive functioning and attention as newborns and throughout infancy - Alcohol= most widely studied teratogen - Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) consists of a group of abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to maternal alcohol consumption - Includes facial abnormalities, small malformed brains, and small stature - Psychological symptoms include intellectual and fine and gross motor impairments and poor adaptive functioning (deficits in communication and social skills) - 40% has ADHD - Has been identified as a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries - About 1/3 to 1/3 of infants born to alcoholic mothers have FAS, but even social drinking or an episode of binge drinking increases the risk of prenatal damage or long term impairment - But not all fetuses exposed to alcohol in the womb have FAS, some show no symptoms, others display only some or milder forms of deficits which include impaired executive functioning (problems with higher level attention, learning, planning, abstract though and organizational skills) - Less sever pattern is called FAE effects - Threshold level is unknown - O‘Leary suggests most damaging effects of alcohol exposure occur during sensitive periods of fetal brain growth, around end of 1 month and during last 22 moths rd  Relatively loud sounds elicit reliable increase during 3 trimester of pregnancy (fetal heart rate and bodily movements - Early responses cane be elicited by vriboacoustic stimulation - Reliable body movements were first elicited around 27 weeks after conception, and increased with fetal age - Heart rate acceleration responses were elicited in almost all fetuses at 29 weeks, and responses remained high until birth - Fetuses also learn--- stop responding to repeated presentations of vibroacoustic and auditory stimuli, reflection short term memory - Also have a long term memory for sounds they hear repeatedly during fetal development (e.g. mothers voices over stranger), during which time they can hear sounds transmitted through the womb INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD THE AMAZING NEWBORN - William James, suggested that the newborn‘s world is a buzzing, blooming confusion - Passive disorganized, and have an empty mind - This view is no longer tenable, given knowledge of prenatal sensory-motor development, the tactile auditory and chemical perceptual systems have been stimulated and are operating at birth - Visual system receives little fetal stimulation, making it a candidate for identifying innate capacities NEWBORN SENSATION AND PERCEPTION - Vision is limited by poor acuity (objects details are blurred, a lock of coordinated eye movements, see double, and tunnel vision - Despite this w/in minutes after birth, when newborns are held properly in dimly lit, quiet room (to eliminate distraction) they will turn to face off-centered visual targets - Also turn toward auditory and tactile targets and odours - Newborns orient to significant stimuli in their environment, most important being mother‘s face voice and smell - System optimizes the newborn‘s access to food, warmth and social stimulation provided by caregivers - Fantz—Newborns have visual preferences. - They look longer at patterned rather than non-patterned targets and prefer complex patterns to simpler patterns - Even prefer mother‘s face over a strangers soon after birth—may be based on hairlines - Infants looked longer when grating stripes are wide - It is also possible to establish a new visual preference in newborns using the visual habituation procedure: - The same stimulus is presented repeatedly until infant looking time declines - When a novel stimulus is presented infants usually look longer at the novel rather than the familiar stimulus - Evidence that infants have memory and that they discriminate b/w familiar and novel stimuli - Continuous development function - By 3-4 months infants discriminate b/w patterns made up of subjective contours - Pattern perception is organized according to Gestalt principles and they discriminate internal features to perceive abstract patterns - Different aspects of pattern perception appear to emerge as infants age in a step- like process (stage), although they may be present at birth but are masked by poor visual acuity or insensitive behavioural tests - Not all perceptual development functions show improvement with age during infancy - U-shaped function exists for sound localization—remarkable ability of newborns to turn toward sounds at birth disappears in the second month of life and return again and 4-5 months - Possible reasons for this drop in responding include lack of practice, being captured by visual targets and temporary inhibition as cortical structures mature and take control of subcoritcally driven reflexes - Auditory pattern perception is also relatively advanced young infants who can detect tiny changes in adult speech sounds that differentiate one word from another but 2 months - In 1 half ear of life, infants appear to perceive music as adults do PHYSICAL, MOTOR, and BRAIN DEVELOPMENT - On average by 1 bday body weight triples, height increases, by 50 percent, and we are standing easily and learn to walk - Maturation: is the genetically programmed biological process that governs our growth - Physical and motor development follow several biological principles - The cephalocaudal principle: reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head to foot direction - Thus the head of a fetus or infant is disproportionately large, because physical growth concentrates on the head and proceeds toward the lower part of the body - The prosimodistal states that development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues toward the outermost parts - Thus a fetus‘s arms develop before its hands and fingers, and at birth infants can control their shoulders but not their arm or hand muscles - Brain develops most rapidly and dramatically - At birth it is far from mature, and is only about 25% of its eventual adult weight - By 6 months the brain already is 50% of adult weight - Cells become larger, many axons develop an insulating myelin sheath, neural network form the basis for cognitive and motor skills develop rapidly - Brain maturation occurs in an orderly fashion - First areas to develop and mature, such as the brain stem, lie deep w/in the brain and regulate basic survival functions such as heartbeat and breathing - The areas last to mature include association areas of the frontal cortex, which are vital to highest level cognitive functions such as thinking and language - Rapid growth rate during infancy and early childhood slow in later childhood - 5 year old brains have reached almost 90% of adult size and are closer to adult weight - Although brain size increases little b/w 10, its maturation continues \ - New synapses form, the association areas of the cerebral cortex mature and the cerebral hemispheres become highly specialized - Motor development tends to follow a regular stage-like sequence - Infants vary in the age at which they acquire a particular skill, but the sequence in which each skill appears is similar across infants - REFLEXES: defined as automatic, inborn behaviours elicited by specific stimuli present at birth - Some such as breathing, the rooting reflex, and sucking have clear adaptive value, together they regulate the infant‘s ability to feed - Other reflexes have less obvious adaptive significance - For example, some new born s will crawl when place prone on a surface and ―swim‖ when placed in water - Grasp objects with their hands and feet, and some even appear to walk when held upright with their feet touching a surface - Generally healthy reflexes indicate normal neurological maturity at birth - Newborns stepping reflex usually drops out after one to two months and reappear around 12 months when infants attempt to walk - Motor skill is hidden not lost - Suspected that as the legs grew heaver, the slower developing leg muscles were not able to lift them - When they held babies in water the buoyancy lightened the load, alternate stepping reappeared ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES - Diet- chronic sever malnutrition not only stunts general growth and brain development, but it also is major source of infant death worldwide - Physical touch and environmental enrichment also affect growth in infancy - Properly nourished newborn rats show stunted development if they are deprived of normal physical contact with their mothers, but stroking rat with brush helps maintain normal physical growth - Premature and full term infants who are regularly massaged gain weight more rapidly and show faster neurological development - Rats raised in an enriched environment develop heavier brains, larger neurons and more synaptic connections - Also greater amounts of acetycholine, nt that enhances learning - Visual deprivation during first few months (during sensitive period) can permanently damage a cat‘s visual acuity  Biology sets limits on environmental influence: - Best nutrition will not enable most people to grow seven ft tall  Environmental influences can be powerful: - Nurturing environments foster physical, sensory motor, and psychological growth, while impoverished environments can stunt growth  Biological and environmental influences interact: - Enriched environments enhance brain development, in turn brain development facilitates our ability to learn and benefit from environmental experiences COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT PIAGET’S STAGE MODEL - Worked with Alfred Binet, pioneer of intelligence testing - Key issue in understanding how children think was not whether they got the right answers but how they arrived there - He relied on observational research - Proposed that children‘s thinking changes qualitatively with age, and it differs from the way adults think - He believed that cognitive development results from and interplay of maturation and experience - Viewed children and natural born scientists who actively explore and seek to understand the world - To achieve understanding, the brain builds schemas are organized patterns of though and action - Like an internal framework that guides interaction with the world - E.g. infants are born with a sucking reflex that provides a primitive framework—a schema for interacting with physical objects - To the infant world is meant to me sucked - Sucking is the basic way it knows the world - Cognitive development occurs as we acquire new schemas, and as existing schemas become more complex - According to Piaget two key processes are involved: -  Assimilation: is the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas - For example, when a young infant encounters a new object, they will try to suck it - Tries to fit this new experience into a schema she already has—objects are suckable - Similarly a child who sees a horse for the first time may say big doggies—tries to make sense of it four legs a tail so the child tires to make sense of this new experience by applying her familiar schema doggie -  Accommodation: the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change - As the infant tries to suck different objects, she will eventually encounter ones that are too big to go into her mouth or that taste bad - This imbalance or disequilibrium between existing schemas and new experiences ultimately forces those schemas to change - Thus schemas become more complex - Understanding of the world changes fundamentally - Every time a schema is modified it helps create a balance, b/w the environment and the child‘s understanding of it - Cognitive growth thus involves a give and take b/w trying to understand new experiences in terms of what we already know (assimilation) an having to modify our thinking when new experiences don‘t fit into our current schemas (accommodation) Piaget outlined four major stages of cognitive growth Sensorimotor Stage: - Lasts from birth to 2 - Infants understand their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical (motor) interactions with objects - Reflexes are the earliest schemas that guide thought and action, but as sensory and motor capabilities increase babies begin to explore their surroundings - Eventually they realize they can make things happen - For a 6 month old if you a hide a toy they will not look for it out of sight out of mind, but around 8 months she will pull back the blanket and retrieve the hidden toy - Now has object permanence: the ability to understand that an object continues to exist even when it disappears from sight - This major developmental milestone frees the child from immediate sensory experience by allowing the child to be conscious of invisible objects and past experiences as she plans a response to current events - Infants begin to acquire language after age one and toward the end of the period they use words increasingly to represent objects, needs, and actions - In the space of two years, infants have grown to planfl thinkers who can form simple concepts, solve problems mentally and communicate their thoughts to others Preoperational Stage: - Around age two, they represent the world symbolically through words and mental images, but do not yet understand basic mental operations or rules - Rapid language development helps children label objects and represent simple concepts, e.g. that two objects can be the same or different - Become capable of thinking about the past and future they become better at anticipating the consequences of their actions, and symbolic thinking enables them to engage in make believe or pretend play - Still have important limitations - Does not understand the concept of conversation, the principle that basic properties of objects, such as their volume mass or quantity stay the same are conserved even though their outward appearance may change - E.g. taller glass thinks there is more - Child‘s thinking displays irreversibility—difficult to mentally reverse and action - Centration, focusing on only one aspect of the situation i.e. height not width - Also contributes to young preoperational children‘s more general tendency to be deceived by striking but false appearances - Display animism,-- attributing lifelike qualities to physical objects and natural events - Sky is crying when raining, state twinkle because they are winking - Thinking reflects egocentrism--- difficulty in viewing the world from someone else‘s perspective - Not selfishness but that other people perceive things in the same way they do Concrete Operational Stage: - 7-12, children perform basic mental operations concerning problems that involve tangible (ie. Concrete objects and situations ) - Now grasp the concept of reversibility and display less centration, they easily solve the water beaker task and other conversation problems that baffled them as preschoolers - They grasp the concept of serial ordering and can easily arrange a set of objects along various dimensions, such as from shortest to tallest - Also can perform mental representations of a series of actions - Can draw a map showing the route to get to school - Preoperational have difficulty representing the route symbolically - When they confront problems that are hypothetical or require abstract reason, they often show rigid types of thinking Formal Operational Stage: - Individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems, form hypotheses and test them in a thoughtful way - Begins around 11- 12 and increases through adolescence - Begin to think more flexibly when tackling hypothetical problems, such as brain teasers and typically enjoy the challenge - 12 yr olds provide more creative answers and better justification to the third eye problem then 9 yr old concrete thinkers Assessment of Piaget’s Theory: Stages, Ages and Culture - Piaget considered his stages to be universal - Tests of children in divers cultures around the world on Piaget‘s cognitive tasks have shown that the general cognitive abilities associated with Piaget‘s four stages appear to occur in the same order across cultures - For example, children understand object permanence, before symbolic thinking blooms, and formal operational thinking also though not as common as Piaget suggested, always emerges after concrete reasoning develops - Researchers have also found that culture influences cognitive development - Piaget‘s Western perspective equated cognitive development with scientific logical thinking, but many cultures do not share this view - Compared to the west, ppl from underdeveloped countries or tribal societies often appear to show a large ‗age-delay‘ or to achieve less success in solving Piaget‘s concrete and formal operational tasks - Differences shrink or disappear when culturally appropriate tasks are chosen, when researchers speak the native language, or when children receive special training or formal schooling  New research challenges some of Piaget‘s ideas - Evidence is accumulating to show that infants and children acquire many cognitive skills at younger ages that Piaget had postulated - Depends on language, familiar situations, less on the tasks invented by Piaget - Another problem is that cognitive development w/in each stage seems to proceed inconsistently - A child may perform at the preoperational level on some tasks yet solve other tasks at a concrete operational level - If development proceeds in qualitatively distinct stages, then a child at a given stage should not show large inconsistencies in solving conceptually similar tasks Vgyotsky: The Social Context of Cognitive Development - Piaget focused mainly on children‘s independent exploration of the physical world, Vgyotsky emphasized that children also live in a social world, and that cognitive development occurs in a socio-cultural context - IN all types of daily interactions including fantasy play, adults and older peers stimulate children‘s cognitive growth and provide them with knowledge about the world - Zone of proximal development: the difference b/w what a child can do independently and what the child can do with assistance from adults or more advanced peers - Helps us to recognize those functions that have not yet matures but are in the process of maturation - Gives us an idea of what children may soon be able to do on their own - Also emphasizes that people can provide experiences and feedback that move a child‘s cognitive development forward within limits (the zone) dictated by the child‘s level of biological maturation - E.g. when parents work with a child on scientific tasks, they may push the child‘s understanding further along by using age-appropriate but cognitively demanding speech (e.g. introducing scientific concepts and terms) than bu using only simpler speech  Having older siblings around the house may stimulate a child‘s cognitive development, as long as the child is biologically ready for the input Information-Processing Approaches - Many researchers believe that cognitive development is best examines w/in and info-processing framework - E.g. young children may be unable to solve conservation problems because they pay insufficient attention to the tasks, don‘t search for key information, or are unable to hold enough pieces of information simultaneously in memory - Preschoolers problems with tasks is due to immature selective attention - Their performance improved when they were prompted by for example labeling the correct colour during the task - Processing speed improves continuously and that the relatively rapid rate of change between ages 8 to 12 slows during adolescence - Memory capabilities expand significantly during childhood - Young children do not make effective use of chunking and other organizational strategies - Metacognition refers to an awareness of one‘s own mental processes that younger kids - Better at judging how well they understand material for a test or directions to someone‘s house - Can help them decide whether they need to study more or ask for a map - Many researchers who adopt an information-processing approach believe that cognitive development is a continuous gradual process in which the same set of processing abilities becomes more efficient over time---reject the notion of stages - Neo-piagetian theorists by contrast believe that children also acquire new modes of processing information as they age - Some argue that development involves both discontinuity (stages) and continuity - Susan Gathercole suggests that memory capabilities change qualitatively (i.e. new abilities emerge) b/w infancy and 7, but then undergo only gradual quantitative improvements through adolescence - Robbie Case: related continuous growth to working memory, computational facility, and task-specific knowledge to both major shifts in reasoning ability, similar to advances through Piaget‘s stages, and more minor shifts - Outlines how the network of central conceptual structures (mental blueprints or plans used to solve various sets of problems, similar to Piaget‘s mental schemas) that process the relationships b/w events and objects become more abstract, complex, and flexible with age THEORY OF THE MIND: CHILDREN‖S UNDESTANDING OF MENTAL STATES - The term theory of mind: refers to a persons‘ beliefs about how the mind works, and what others are thinking about - Adults assume the mind exists, that it consists of various mental states such as knowledge, feelings, desires, intentions etc, and these states are related to a persons actions - Use the assumptions to explain and predict their own and other ppl‘s behaviour - According to Piaget, children under 6 or 7 have limited understanding of how the mind works, thus have difficulty inferring what others are thinking - This is what egocentrism is about hot being able to understand how someone else perceives a situation - Lying and deception reflect the operation of a theory of mind: they imply an understanding that one can instill a false belief into another person‘s mind MORAL DEVELOPMENT - Major goal of socialization is to help children recognize right from wrong and become moral adults Kohlberg’s Stage Model - Theory of moral reasoning - Interested in reasons for judgment - Analyzed responses to various moral dilemmas and concluded that there are 3 main levels of moral reasoning, with two sub-stages w/in each PRECONVENTIONAL MORAL REASONING - Based on anticipated punishments or rewards - Stage 1: focus on punishment - Stage 2: morality is judged by anticipated rewards and doing what is in the persons interest CONVENTIONAL MORAL REASONING - Based on conformity and to social expectations, laws, and duties - Stage 3: conformity stems from the desire to gain people‘s approval - Stage 4: children believe that laws and duties must be obeyed simply because rules are meant to followed POSTCONVENTIONAL MORAL REASONING - Based on well thought out, general moral principles - Stage 5: involves recognizing the importance of societal laws, but also taking individual rights into account - Stage 6: morality is based on abstract ethical principles of justice that are viewed as universal  Believed that progress in moral reasoning depends upon general cognitive maturation and the opportunity to confront moral issues, particularly when such issues can be discussed with someone who is at a higher stage of development - Moral education programs based on his theory have been applied in schools, prisons, and with at-risk youth CULTURE, GENDER, and MORAL REASONING - As we age from childhood through adolescence, moral reasoning changes from pre-conventional to conventional levels - Even in adulthood, post-conventional reasoning is relatively uncommon, though its frequency varies across cultures - Levels are not skipped, pre-conventional reasoning occurs before conventional reasoning, and when it occurs post conventional reasoning is last - A person‘s moral judgments do not always reflect the same level or stage w/in levels - Research using Kohlberg‘s tasks also finds that post-conventional reasoning occur more often among ppl from Westernized, formally educated, and middle or upper class backgrounds than among ppl in developing countries - Critics claim that the theory has a Western culture bias - Fairness and justice are his post-conventional ideals, but in many cultures the highest moral values focus on principles that do not easily fit into the model: e.g. benevolence, non-violence, respect for all animal life, protecting the souls of dead ancestors from harm, respect for the elderly, and collective harmony - Also critique gender bias, emphasis on justice primarily reflects a male perspective - Highly moral women place greater value than men do on caring and responsibility for others welfare - Females use justice reasoning when the situation calls for it and males use reasoning based on caring and relationships when appropriate - Too heavy on moral thinking and not moral behaviour - Moral development is not just a cognitive process - It has a behavioural component, it overlaps with other aspects of personality development, and it occurs w/in a social context PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT - Children also grow socially and emotionally - They form attachments and relationships, and each child displays a unique personality‘‘--- a distinctive yet somewhat consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving - Freud thought adult personality was development w/in first 5 yrs of life Eriksson’s Psychosocial Theory - Believed hat personality develops through confronting a series of 8 major psychosocial stages, each of which involves a different crisis or conflict over how we view ourselves in relation to other ppl and the world - Each crisis is present throughout life but takes on special importance during a particular age period - 4 Crisis occur during infancy and childhood:  Basic trust vs. Basic Mistrust: st - During 1 year of life we depend totally on our parents or other caretakers - How adequately needs are met, and how much love and attention we receive, determine whether we develop a basic trust or basic mistrust of the world  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: - Next two years, become ready to separate themselves from their parents and exercise their individuality - If parents unduly restrict children or make harsh demands during toilet training, children develop shame and doubt about their abilities and later lack the courage to be independent  Initiative vs. Guilt: - From 3-5 children display great curiosity about the world - If they are allowed freedom to explore and receive answers to their questions they develop a sense of initiative - If they are held back or punished, they develop guilt about their desires and suppress their curiosity  Industry vs. inferiority: - From 6- puberty, child‘s life expands into school and peer activities - Children who experience pride and encouragement in mastering tasks develop industry—a striving to achieve - Repeated failure and lack of praise for trying leads to a sense of inferiority Critics argue that Eriksson‘s model lacks detail and questions its stage approach, the model successfully captures several major issues that developing children confront - B/c each stage of life creates new opportunities, personality is not fixed in childhood - Read Research foundations ATTACHMENT - German ethologist called sudden biologically primed from of attachment Imprinting - Occurs in some species of birds, and in a few mammals - Illustrates the concept of critical periods - Depending on the species, offspring must be exposed to parents w/in hours or days after entering the world in order to attach to them - Attachment refers to the strong emotional bond that develops b/w children and their primary caregivers - Human infants do not automatically imprint on a caregiver the way ducklings do, and there is not an immediate post-birth crucial period when contact is required for infant-caregiver bonding - Instead in the first few years of life, seem to be a sensitive period when we most easily form a 1 attachment to caregivers, a bond that enhances out social and personality adjustment later in life - Although it may be difficult a strong first attachment to caregivers still can be formed later in childhood The attachment process Harlow: showed that contact comfort---body contact with a comforting object—is more important in fostering attachment than the provision of nourishment - John Bowlby: proposed that attachment during infancy develops in 3 phases: - Indiscriminate attachment behaviour: Newborns cry, vocalize, and smile, and they might emit these behaviours toward everyone, I turn these behaviours evoke care giving from adults - Discriminate attachment behaviour: Around 3 months, infants direct their attachment behaviours more toward a familiar, regular caregiver than toward
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