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Psychology Reading Notes final.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 2 How Psychologists do research4102012 83300 AM What makes psychological research Scientific 1 Precision scientists launch investigations because of a hunchthey start off with a theory that explains somethingfrom the hunch the scientist derives a hypothesis which attempts to describe or explain a given behaviorthe hypothesis leads to predictions about what will happen in a particular situation2 Skepticism this means treating conclusions both new and old with caution caution however must be balanced by openness to new ideas3 reliance on empirical evidence an idea may initially generate excitement because it is plausible imaginative or appealing but eventually it must be backed up by empirical evidence to be taken seriously4 Willingness to make risky predictions scientists much state an idea in such a way that it can be refuted if necessary doubt exists principle falsifiabilityscientists are vulnerable to confirmation bias tendency to look for and accept evidence that supports our pet theories and assumptions and to ignore or reject evidence that contradicts our belief5 opennessscientists must be willing to tell other about their ideas science depends on the free flow f ideas and full disclosure of the procedures used in a studyscientists must also be willing to tell people how they got their ideas how the ideas were tested and what the results wereother scientists must be able to replicate studies so scientists must be clear about the processreplication is a huge part of scientific process because many times things turn out to just be a flukeDescriptive studiesRepresentative sample group of participants that accurately represent the larger population in which the researcher is interested Descriptive Methods methods that yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual explanations Case study detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated Observational studies a study in which researchers carefully and systematically observe and record behavior without interfering with the behavior this may involve either naturalistic or lab observation Naturalistic observation find out how people or animals act in their normal or social environmentsLaboratory observation observing how people or animals act in the lab Researchers have more control in this setting Psychological tests measure and evaluate personality traits emotional states aptitudes interests abilities and valuespeople answer a series of written or oral questionsmeasure of a good test 1 is it standardized There must be a uniform procedure for giving and grading the test2 there must be a norm a norm is a group of people who all fit the type of person the test is intended for 3 does the test have reliability The test must produce the same results from one time and place to the next or from one scorer to the other4 does the test have validity It must measure out what It sets to measure out 5are you able to give an alternate for of the test and receive the same answersyou must be able to do thisSurveys questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about experiences attitudes and opinionsMeasuring correlations a correlation is a measure of how strongly two valuables are related to one anothera positive correlation means that high values of one variable relate to high values of another variable and low variables relate to low variables negative correlation means that high vales relate to low values
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