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Psychology 1000

9/13/2011 7:55:00 AM Psych reading Pgs. 2-19 Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the mind Behaviour: actions and responses that we can directly observe Mind: internal states and processes, such as thoughts and feeling that cannot be seen directly and that must be inferred from observable, measurable responses Clinical psychology: the study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive psychology: the study of mental processes, especially from a model that views the mind as an information processor Biopsychology: focuses on the biological underpinnings of behaviour Developmental psychology: human physical, psychological, and social development across the lifespan. Experimental psychology: basic processes like learning, sensory system, perception, and motivational states Industrial organizational psychology: examines peoples behaviour in the workplace Personality psychology: study of human personality Social psychology: examine people‟s thoughts, feelings, and behaviour pertaining to the social world Structuralism: the analysis of the mind in terms of is basic elements Functionalism: psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure Difference between the two: Consider your hands, a structuralist would try to explain their movement by studying how muscles, tendons and bones operate. A functionalist would ask why we had hands and how they help us adapt to the environment. Psychodynamic perspective: searches for the causes of behaviour within the inner workings of our personality emphasizing the role of unconscious processes Psychoanalysis: the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces Behavioral perspective: focuses on the role of the external environment in governing our actions Behaviourism: a school of thought that emphasizes environmental control of behaviour through learning Cognitive behaviourism: learning experiences and the environment affect our behaviour by giving us the information we need to behave effectively Humanistic perspective: emphasizes free will, personal growth, and the attempt to find meaning in one‟s existence Self-actualization: the reaching of one‟s individual potential Positive psychology movement: emphasizes the study of human strengths, fulfillment, and optimal living Cognitive perspective: examines the nature of the mind and how mental processes influence behaviour Gestalt psychology: examined how the mind organizes elements of experience into a unified or “whole” perception Cognitive neuroscience: uses sophisticated electrical recording and brain- imaging techniques to examine brain activity while people engage in cognitive tasks Sociocultural perspective: examines how the social environment and cultural learning influence our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. Cultural psychology: explores how culture is transmitted to its members and examines psychological similarities and differences among people from diverse cultures. Biological perspective: examines how brain processes and other bodily functions regulate behaviour Behavioural neuroscience: examines brain processes and other physiological functions that underlie our behaviour, sensory experiences, emotions, and thoughts. Neurotransmitters: chemicals released by nerve cells that allow them to communicate with one another Behaviour genetics: the study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors Natural selection: if an inherited trait gives certain members an advantage over others, these members will be more likely to survive and pass on these characteristics to their offspring Evolutionary psychology: seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern human behaviour Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as products of evolution Psychology‟s goals to describe how people and other animals behave to explain and understand the causes of these behaviours to predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions to influence and control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare The six major perspectives on human behaviour (pg 24) Psychodynamic Behavioural Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural Biological Psychology‟s two earliest schools of thought Structuralism Functionalism Depression genetic factors usually involved related to biochemical factors and sleep/wakefulness rhythms in the brain may have experienced a loss or abuse during childhood reaction to a non-rewarding environment women are about twice as likely as men to feel depressed in Western nations Summary psychology is empirical (relies on observation rather than intuition) our experience of the world is subjective behaviour is determined by multiple causal factors nature and nurture combine to shape our behaviour and influence each other psychological capacities have evolved over time cultural environments affect behavioural and mental processes to understand behaviour we move between environmental, biological and psychological reasoning Diffusion of responsibility: a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening Self report measures: ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, experiences, or behaviour. Social desirability bias: the tendency to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or believes Descriptive research: seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave, particularly in natural settings Case study: in depth analysis of an individual, a group, or event Naturalistic observation: researcher obvserves behaviour as it occurs in a natural setting Chapter 3 9/13/2011 7:55:00 AM Neurons: nerve cells linked together in circuits Dendrites: branchlike fibers emerging from the cell body, collect messages from neighbouring neurons and send them to cell body, input side of a neuron Axon: conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands Glial cells: surround neurons and hold them in place, make nutrient chemicals that neurons need , absorb toxins and waste materials that might damage neurons Blood brain barrier: prevents substances from entering the brain Action potential: sudden reversal in the neuron‟s membrane voltage, during which the membrane voltage moves from -70 millivolts (inside) to +40 millivolts Depolarization: shift from negative to positive voltage Absolute refractory period: impulse passes a point along the axon and after there is a recovery period as K+ ions flow out of the interior All or none law: action potentials occur at a uniform and maximum intensity or do not occur at all Graded potentials: changes in the negative resting potential that do no reach the -50 millivolts action potential threshold Myelin sheath: fatty, whitish insulation layer covering axons that transmit information through the brain and spinal cord Synapse: functional connection between a neuron and its target Synaptic cleft: tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of the next neuron Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that carry messages across the synapse to either excite other neurons or inhibit their firing, if they create depolarization they‟re called “excitatory transmitters” Synaptic vesicles: chambers in which molecules are stored (in neuron) Receptor sites: large protein molecules embedded in the receiving neuron‟s cell membrane Reuptake: transmitter molecules are reabsorbed into the presynaptic axon terminal Acetylcholine (ACh): neurotransmitter involved in memory and muscle activity (under produced ACh is a factor in Alzheimer‟s) Dopamine: controls motivation, reward, feelings of pleasure, voluntary motor control, control of thought processes Serotonin: neurotransmitter that influences mood, eating, sleep, and sexual behaviour Endorphins: reduce pain and increase feelings of well being Neuromodulators: more widespread and generalized influence on synaptic transmission Agonist: a drug that increases the activity of a neurotransmitter Antagonist: a drunk that inhibits or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter Sensory neurons: carry input messages from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain Motor neurons: transmit output impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the body‟s muscles and organs Interneurons: outnumber sensory and motor, perform connective or associative functions within the nervous system Central nervous system: consisting of all the neurons in the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system: composed of all the neurons that connect the central nervous system with the muscles, glands, and sensory receptors Somatic nervous system: consists of the sensory neurons that are specialized to transmit messages from the eyes, ears, and other sensory receptors, and motor neurons to get messages to muscles Sensory nerves: axons of sensory neurons that group together Motor nerves: motor neuron axons that group together Autonomic nervous system: controls the glands and the smooth involuntary muscles that form the heart, blood vessels, and the lining of stomach and intestines Sympathetic nervous system: an activation or arousal function, tends to act as a total unit (ex. Encountering a stressful situation, your heart will speed, pupils dialate, slow digestive system) Parasympathetic: more specific than sympathetic, slows down body processes and maintains or returns you to a state of rest (slows down heart rate) Homeostasis: parasympathetic and sympathetic work together to maintain equilibrium in internal organs Vertebrae: bones of spine Electroencephalogram (EEG): measure that taps the electrical activity of thousands of neurons in many parts of the brain Computerized axial tomography (CT) scans: uses x-ray technology to study brain structures, a highly focused beam of x-rays takes pictures of narrow slices of brain Positron emission tomography (PET) scans: measure brain activity, including metabolism, blood flow, and neurotransmitter activity Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): combines CT and PET scans and can be used to study both brain structures and brain activity- creates images based on how atoms in living tissue respond to a magnetic pulse delivered by the device Cerebellum: concerned primarily with muscular movement coordination but also plays a role in certain types of learning and memory Medulla: plays an important role in vital body functions, such as heart rate and respiration, 3.8 cm long - neurons have 3 main parts: cell body (controls the vital processes of the cell), dendrites (receive nerve impulses from other neurons) , axon (conducts nerve impulses to adjacent neurons, muscles, and glands) - they generate electricity that creates nerve impulses - release chemicals - at rest, the neuron is said to be in a state of polarization - when a neuron is stimulated nearby sodium channels open up which flood inside the axon - humans have 300 impulse limit per second - neurons produce neurotransmitters - chemical communication: synthesis, storage, release, binding, and deactivation - neuron only has 1 axon, but thousands of dendrites - when a transmitter molecule attaches to the receptor site there is a chemical reaction - the reaction could excite the cell membrane by stimulating the inflow of positively charged ions - or could hyperpolarize membrane, stimulate ion channels to allow +charge to flow out and –charge to flow in, membrane potential becomes more negative - ex. When someone has a seizure large numbers of neurons fire off action potentials in runaway fashion - neurotransmitter molecules stick to the receptor until it is deactivated - deactivation: occurs when chemicals in the synaptic space break them down into chemical components, or reuptake - 100-150 transmitters in the brain - neurons are selective in the neurotransmitters that can stimulate them refer to chart on 79 +80 - 3 types of neurons carry out the system‟s input - peripheral nervous system is divided into somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system - nerves are called tracts inside the brain and spinal cord - autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system The Central Nervous System Spinal Cord - nerves usually enter and leave through the spinal cord - in an adult: usually 40-45 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter - spinal cord‟s neurons produced by vertebrae - in the central portion it contains grey coloured neuron cell bodies and their interconnections - surrounding that are white myelinated axons that connect levels of the spinal cord with each other and higher centres of the brain - in the back side of the spinal cord are sensory nerves - motor nerves exit the spinal cord‟s front side - messages to and from the brain take longer than getting messages to the sensory nerves in the spinal cord Brain - 1.4 kilograms of protein, fat, and fluid - most active energy consumer of all organs - consumes 20% of oxygen in resting state - electrodes can be used to record and stimulate brain activity - divided into three major subdivisions- lowest and most primitive level of the brain the hindbrain, the midbrain above the hindbrain, and the forebrain - Hindbrain contains: medulla, the pons, and the cerebellum - Midbrain contains: sensory and motor neurons, sensory and motor tracts, reticular formation, ascending and descending reticular formation - Forebrain contains: two cerebral hemispheres, a number of subcotrical structires Brain stem - spinal cord enlarges to become brain stem - attached to brain stem is the other major portion of the hindbrain, the cerebellum Medulla: - plays an important role in vital body functions, such as heart rate and respiration, all sensory and motor nerve tracts coming up from the spinal cord and descending from the brain - left side of brain gets sensory in up from and exerts motor control over the right side of the body - the right side of the brain serves the left side of the body Pons - lies just above the medulla - serves as a bridge carrying nerve impulses between higher and lower levels of the nervous system - has a cluster of neurons that help to regulate sleep and are involved in dreaming - contains motor neurons that control the muscles and glands of the face and neck - help to control vital functions especially respiration Cerebellum - mini brain attached to rear or brain stem - consists mainly of grey cell bodies - concerned primarily with muscular movement coordination - plays a role in certain types of learning and memory - timing and coordination of motor movements depend on the cerebellum Midbrain - lies just above the hindbrain - contains clusters of sensory and motor neurons - also sensory and motor fibre tracts that connect higher and lower portions of the nervous system - sensory portion of the midbrain contains important relay centers for seeing and hearing - nerve impulses from the eyes and ears are organized and sent to forebrain structures involved in hearing and seeing - contains motor neurons controlling eye movement Reticular formation - acts as a kind of sentry - alerts higher centres of the brain that messages are coming and then either blocking those messages or allowing them to go forward - has an ascending part which sends alerts to higher regions of the brain - has a descending part which higher brain centres can either admit or block sensory input - big role in consciousness, sleep, and attention Forebrain - consists of two large cerebral hemispheres, left and right - wrap around the brain stem - outer portion has a thin covering (cortex) Thalamus - located above the midbrain - resembles small footballs - there is one in each cerebral hemisphere - sensory relay station - organizes inputs from sense organs and sends them to areas of brain - visual, auditory and body senses have major relay stations in the thalamus - nerve tracts from sensory receptors are sent to specific areas of thalamus Basal Ganglia - envelopes thalamus - five distinct structures - critical for voluntary motor control The hypothalamus - consists of tiny groups of neuron cell bodies that lie at the base of the brain above the roof of the mouth - plays a major role in controlling many different biological drives (sexual behaviour, temperature regulation, eating, drinking, aggression, expression of emotion) - has connections with the endocrine system (body‟s collection of hormone-producing glands) - responsible for keeping you alive The limbic system - set of structures lying deep in the cerebral hemispheres - shaped like a wishbone - important partnership with hypothalamus - helps to coordinate behaviours needed to satisfy motivational and emotional urges that arise in the hypothalamus and it is involved in memory - organizes into goal directed sequences Putaman - involved in Huntinsons and Parkinson‟s disease Hippocampus - part of the limbic system - involved in forming, storing and retrieving memories Amygdala - part of the limbic system - organizes emotional response patters (esp. aggression and fear) - can produce emotional responses without the higher centers of the brain knowing that we are emotionally aroused Nucleus accumbens - receives activated axons coming from neuron cell bodies in the midbrain Pineal gland - hormonal regulation Corpus collosum - connects 2 of the hemispheres together Cerebral cortex - two-thirds cm thick sheet of grey cells that form the outermost layer of the human brain - not essential for physical survival but essential for living - 75% of the cortex‟s total surface area lies within its fissures - one large fissure runs up the front and along the top of the brain - major fissure within each hemisphere divides the cerebrum into front and rear halves - central fissure separates the frontal and parietal lobes - the third fissures runs from front to rear along the side of the brain - separated into four lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal - frontal lobe controls speck and skeletal motor functions - parietal lobe governs body sensations - visual area is located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain - messages from the auditory system are sent to a region in the top of the temporal lobe - ¾s of the cortex is not associated with sensory or motor functions, this is called association cortex, involves in mental processes such as thought, memory, and perception Motor cortex - controls the 600 or more muscles involved in voluntary body movements - lies at the rear of the frontal lobe adjacent to the central fissure - each hemisphere governs movement on the opposite side of the body Sensory cortex - Somatic sensory cortex: receives sensory input that gives rise to our sensations of heat, touch, cold, and our senses of body movement - Lies in the parietal lobe behind the motor cortex, separated from it by the large figure that divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe - Each side of the body sends sensory input to the opposite hemisphere - Feet are represented towards the top of the brain - Auditory area lies on the surface of the temporal lobe at the side of each hemisphere - Sensory area for vision lies at the rear of the occipital lobe - Messages from the visual receptor are translated into sight - neurons respond to particular aspects of the sensory stimulus - the sensory cortex is sensitive to experience Wernicke’s Area - in temporal lobe - involved in language comprehension Broca’s area - in frontal lobe - necessary for normal speech production - both areas normally work together when in conversation, they allow you to understand what the other person is saying and to express your own thoughts- works with motor cortex Association cortex - found within all lobes of the cerebral cortex - involved in the highest level of mental functions (perception, language, thought) - electrically stimulating them does not give rise to sensory experiences or motor responses - constitutes about 75% of the human cerebral cortex and accounts for humans cognitive abilities The frontal lobes - mass of cortex behind our eyes and forehead - 29% of the cortex - self-awareness, planning, initiative, responsibility - involved in emotional experience Pre-frontal cortex - located just behind the forehead - “executive functions” - goal setting, judgement, strategic planning, impulse control Corpus callosum - a neural bridge that acts as a major communication link between the two hemispheres and allows them to function as a single unit - lateralization: refers to the relatively greater localization of a function in one hemisphere or another - when Broca‟s or Wernicke‟s speech areas are damaged, the result is aphasia (the partial or total loss of the ability to communicate) - mental imagery, musical and artistic ability, perceiving and understanding spatial relationships are primarily right hemisphere functions - the right hemisphere does not have well developed language abilities - language is primarily a left brain function Neural plasticity: the ability of neurons to change in structure and function - brain is capable of plasticity earlier in life - when you are younger you have more synapses - environmental factors have an effect on brain development - when neurons die, surviving neurons can sprout enlarged dendritic networks and extend axons to form new synapses - neurons can increase the amount of neurotransmitter substance they release to they are more sensitive to simulation Chapter 4 9/13/2011 7:55:00 AM - heredity involves the passing on of specific organic factors Genotype: the specific genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype: the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowment - genotypes are present and never change - phenotypes can be affected by other genes and the environment - eggs and sperm carry chromosomes Chromosomes: a tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partly covered by protein Genes: units carried in the DNA portion of the chromosome, hereditary blueprint, (characteristics, potentials, limitations) - every cell in the body has 46 cells (except sex cells) - sex cells carry 23 chromosomes Zygote: new formed cell from egg and sperm - genes within chromosomes occur in pairs - offspring should receive one of each gene pair from each parent - every cell nucleus in the body contains the genetic code for your body Alleles: alternative form of a gene that produce different characteristics - when a gene is activated the cell produces a specific protein - genotype and phenotype are not identical because of dominant and recessive Dominant: the characteristic that the gene shows will be displayed Recessive: the characteristic will not show up unless the partner gene inherited from the other parent is also recessive Polygenic transmission: a number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a single phenotypic trait, magnifies the number of variations in a trait that can occur - humans have about 25000 genes Recombinant DNA procedures: researchers use certain enzymes to cut the long threadlike molecules of genetic DNA into pieces, combine them with DNA from another organism, such as a bacterium Gene knockout: alter a specific gene in a way that prevents it from carrying out its normal function - the probability of sharing any particular gene with one of your parents is 50% Heritability coefficient: how much of the variation in a characteristic within a population can be attributed to genetic differences, a way of estimating how much of that variation is attributable to genetic factors Concordance: Adoption study: a person who was adopted early in life is compared on some characteristic both with the biological parents and with the adoptive parents Identical twin: develop from the same zygote Fraternal twins: develop from different zygotes - the more gene people have in common the more similar they are in IQ - environment contribute significantly to intelligence Reaction range: the range of possibilities for a genetically influenced trait (the upper and lower limit) that the genetic code allows - individual inherits a range for potential intelligence - environmental effects determine where the person falls between those boundaries Five Factor Model - individual differences in personality can be accounted for by various traits 1. Extraversion-Introversion: sociable, outgoing vs. quiet, inhibited 2. Agreeableness: cooperation vs. uncooperative 3. Conscientiousness: dependable vs. undependable 4. Neuroticism: anxious vs. calm 5. Openness to experience: imaginative vs. lacking in intellectual curiosity - personality characteristics do not show as high a level of heritability factors as intelligence - Looking at differences in twins, research design: 1. Variation attributable to genetics factors, 2. Variation due to a shared family environment among those reared together, 3. Variation attributable to other factors such as unique experiences - Identical twins are more similar in personality traits than fraternal twins - Family environment has little influence on personality differences in the studies - In general, attitudes toward pres
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