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Psychology 1000 Final: Psychology 1000 Final Exam Study Guide

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Psychology 1000

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Psychology 1000 Final Exam Study Guide The final exam is worth 30% and covers chapters 14 – 17 with 100 multiple choice questions from both the text and lecture material CHAPTER 14: PERSONALITY 1. Personality: The distinctive way a person responds to life situations – Thinking, feeling, and acting a. Allows us to distinguish between people b. Is based on internal factors rather than environmental factors c. One’s inner personality guides their behavior 2. Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective: Considered personality to be an energy system – Balance between the ID, EGO, & SUPEREGO 3. Psychic energy: Generated by instinctual drives pressing for release a. Direct release: Sexual activity b. Indirect release: Fantasies or artistic depiction 4. Conscious mental events: Events that we are presently aware of 5. Preconscious mental events: Memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at the moment, but can be recalled 6. Unconscious mental events: Wishes, feelings, and impulses that are beyond our awareness 7. ID: Unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts – Functions irrationally, basic biological urges: Eating, drinking, sex, follows “pleasure principle” – Maximize pleasure, minimize pain – Seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rational circumstances – Present at birth 8. EGO: “Executive of personality” – Must balance the Superego and the ID – Has a reality principle to test reality to decide when the ID can safely discharge its impulses – Serves and controls ID – ID has no contact with reality, needs the ego – Second to develop 9. SUPEREGO: Morals of personality that internalizes standards and values of society – System of controlling EGO with rewarding compliance with pride, and non-compliance with guilt – Last to develop (4 – 5 years old) 10. Unconscious conflict: Interaction of the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO results in constant conflict and anxiety a. Reality anxiety: Fear of real world threats b. Neurotic anxiety: Fear of ID’s desires c. Moral anxiety: Fear of SUPEREGO’s guilt 11. Defense mechanisms: Deny or distort reality to deal with anxiety – Unconscious processes by which the EGO prevents the expression of anxiety-arousing impulses a. Conversion: Conflict converted into a physical symptom – Ex. Developing blindness to not see an anxiety-arousing situation b. Denial: Refusal to acknowledge anxiety-arousing situation c. Displacement: Unacceptable impulse is repressed and then directed at a safer substitute target – Ex. Someone wants to punch there boss but then goes home and punches the wall instead – Displaces the anger d. Intellectualization: Emotion connected to an upsetting event is repressed and is dealt with as an “intellectually interesting event” – Ex. Rejected in a relationship and talking highly about the “interesting unpredictability of love relationships” e. Isolation: Talking about experiences, without emotion – Memories are allowed back into consciousness, but without motives or emotion – Ex. Recalling an extreme trauma such as rape without any emotion f. Projection: Unacceptable impulse is repressed, and then projected onto other people – Ex. Women has a strong desire to have an affair and continually accuses her husband of being unfaithful (represses the desire) g. Rationalization: Constructing a false but plausible explanation for an anxiety-arousing behaviour or event that has already occurred – Ex. Caught cheating on an exam and justifies it by saying the professor’s exams are unfair and everyone else was cheating h. Reaction formation: Anxiety-arousing impulse is repressed and the psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behavior – Ex. Mother feelings hatred for her child and becomes overprotective of the child while repressing these feelings i. Regression: Mentally returning to an earlier, safer state – Ex. Thumb-sucking, bed wetting j. Repression: Anxiety-arousing impulses or memories are pushed into the unconscious mind – Ex. Person who was sexually abused in childhood develops amnesia for the event k. Sublimation: A repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable or even admired behavior – Ex. Aggressive drives being expressed in a violent sport 12. Psychosexual stages of development: Stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on a certain body part – Oral (0 – 2), Anal (2 – 3), Phallic (4 – 6), Latency (7 – puberty), Genital (Puberty – onwards) 13. Oedipus complex: The male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother and views his father as a rival – Female complex referred to as Electra complex 14. Dreams: Not constrained by reality (EGO) and morality (SUPEREGO) – Anxiety can be aroused in dreams – Latent (surface) and manifest (deep content) 15. Free association: Patient expresses anything in therapy, no matter how trivial, embarrassing or unrelated – Analyst looks for associations and resistance – Freud technique 16. Freudian slips: Errors of speech and memory that are believed to be motivated by unconscious thought – Ex. Absent-mindedness of forgetting to mail a letter means you didn’t really want to mail the letter 17. Carl Jung and analytic psychology: Expansion of Freud’s notion of the unconscious – Human’s possess a personal unconscious based on their life experiences AS WELL AS a collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race 18. Archetypes: Jung’s theory – Innate concepts and memories that reside in the collective unconscious – Stereotypical roles of universal figures – Ex. The bully, the dreamer, the good mother, etc. 19. Object relations: The images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers 20. The back door: Subliminal messages through myths, art, literature, jokes 21. Critique of Freud: Limited data with theories built on a selective population, bias as a psychoanalyst is hardly an objective observer, conceptual terms are vague and not testable – Dreams do not necessarily represent desires, Oedipus complex is not culturally universal 22. Evidence for Freud: Evidence for unconscious processing through a “priming effect” – Flashing a picture to someone and they will identify them faster later on, evidence for repression during therapy/memory lapses 23. Importance of Freud: Notion of internal unconscious conflict, broad scope of his theory – “Theory of humanity” 24. Neoanalysts: Disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking, too much focus on infantile sexuality, not enough on cultural and social aspects 25. Alfred Adler: Humans are social beings motivated by social interest – The desire to advance the welfare of others 26. Humanistic Perspective: Focus on inherent “goodness”, strive for self-actualization 27. Maslow hierarchy of needs: Physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem, self-actualization 28. Carl Rogers’ Self-Theory: Behaviour is a response to one’s immediate conscious experience of oneself and the environment – Internal forces are not distorted or blocked, they direct us toward self-actualization 29. Self-actualization: In humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of one’s full potential 30. Self: An organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself 31. Self-consistency: An absence of conflict among self-perceptions 32. Congruence: Consistency between self-perceptions and experience 33. Need for positive regard: An innate need to be positively regarded by others and by oneself 34. Unconditional positive regard: A communicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another person that conveys the person’s intrinsic worth 35. Need for positive self-regard: The psychological need to feel positively about oneself that underlies self- enhancement behaviours 36. Conditions of worth: Internalized standards of self-worth fostered by conditional positive regard from others 37. Fully functioning person: Someone who has reached self-actualization – Free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to develop still further 38. Self-esteem: How positively or negatively we feel about ourselves 39. Self-verification: The tendency to try to verify or validate one’s existing self-concept – That is, to satisfy congruence needs 40. Self-enhancement: Process whereby one enhances positive self-regard 41. Gender schemas: Organized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and expected for males and females 42. Evaluating humanistic perspectives: Relies too much on individual reports of experiences, impossible to define self-actualization in terms of behaviour, difficult to define or predict self-actualization 43. Factor analysis: A statistical technique to identify clusters of behavior or test scores that are highly correlated with one another 44. Big five factor model: Proposes that openness, conscientiousness (careful and correct), extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (instability, anxiety) are principle factors of personality – OCEAN 45. Self-monitoring: A personality trait that reflects people’s tendencies to regulate their social behaviour is accord with situational cues as opposed to internal values, attitudes, and needs 46. Psychoticism: Eysenck – Creativity, tendency towards nonconformity, impulsivity, social deviance 47. Social cognitive theorists: Focus on both internal and external causes of personality – Emphasizes the role of social learning, cognitive processes, and self-regulation – Cognitive-behavioural approach – Bandura: People learn from those they admire 48. Reciprocal determinism: Person, behaviour and environment all influence each other – Bandura’s model of two-way causal relations 49. Human agency: Humans are active agents in their own lives – We are self-reflective and self-regulatory 50. Four aspects of human agency: Intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness a. Intentionality: We plan, modify plans, act with intention b. Forethought: We anticipate outcomes, set goals, actively choose behaviours c. Self-reactiveness: Motivating and regulating our own actions d. Self-reflectiveness: Evaluate our own actions 51. Internal-external locus of control: Rotter’s generalized expectancy that one’s outcomes are under personal versus external control 52. Internalized locus: People believe life outcomes are largely under personal control – More self-determined, do better in school, are independent but cooperative, resistant to social influence, healthier 53. Externalized locus: People believe fate has to do with luck, chance, others 54. Four classes of information that affect self-efficacy beliefs: Performance experiences, observational learning, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal a. Performance experiences: Previous success and failure experiences on similar tasks b. Observational learning: Observation of the behaviors and consequences to similar models in similar situations c. Verbal persuasion: Encouraging or discouraging messages received from others d. Emotional arousal: Arousal that can be interpreted as enthusiasm or anxiety 55. Behavioural assessment: Explicit coding system devised by psychologists that contains the behavioural categories of interest 56. Remote behaviour sampling: Collect random samples of behavior from respondents as they live their daily lives 57. Personality scales: Objective measures because they include standard sets of questions, easy to score – Disadvantage: Dishonestly while answering – Approaches: Rational and empirical 58. Rational approach: An approach to test construction in which test items are made up on the basis of a theorist’s conception of a construct – Ex. Try to determine what introverts would say about themselves (I like spending time alone) – NEO-PI test 59. NEO-PI test: Measures the big 5 personality traits: Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism 60. Empirical approach: An approach to test construction in which items (regardless of their content) are chosen that differentiate between two grounds that are known to differ on a particular personality variable – Ex. Determines what introverts tend to say yes to empirically, whether it makes sense intuitively or not – MMPI test 61. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI): A widely used personality test whose items were developed by using the empirical approach and comparing various kinds of psychiatric patients with normal patients 62. Projective tests: Present ambiguous stimuli to the subject; responses are assumed to be based on a projection of internal characteristics of the person onto the stimuli – Ex. Rorschach inkblot test/Thematic apperception test – Write a story about to picture to judge an interpretation CHAPTER 15: STRESS 1. Stressors: Situations that place demands on organisms that tax or exceed their resources 1. Microstressors: Daily hassles and everyday annoyances 2. Severe stressors: Catastrophic events or major negative events 3. Stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioural, emotional, and cognitive responses to real or imagined stimuli that are perceived as blocking a goal or endangering our well-being 4. Life event scales: Questionnaires that measure the number and intensity of positive and negative life events that have occurred over a specific period of time 5. The appraisal process: Appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary), appraisal of the resources available to cope with it (secondary), judgements of what the consequences of the situation could be, appraisal of the personal meaning – what the outcome might imply about us 6. Primary appraisal: The initial appraisal of a situation as benign, irrelevant, or threatening; a perception of the severity of demands 7. Secondary appraisal: One’s judgement of the adequacy of personal resources needed to cope with a stressor 8. Judgements: Reflection of what the consequences of the situation could be 9. Appraisal of the personal meaning: What the outcome might imply about us 10. General adaptation syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye – Description of the body’s responses to a stressor, which includes successive phases of alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion – Physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged stressors 11. Alarm reaction: Stage 1 of GAS – The shift to sympathetic dominance causes increased arousal – Mobilizes the body’s resources 12. Resistance: Stage 2 of GAS – The adrenal glands release epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol to maintain increased arousal – Stress hormones maintain the body’s defensive changes – Resisting the parasympathetic nervous system that is trying to calm it down as it continues to fight the stressor 13. Exhaustion: Stage 3 of GAS – The adrenal glands lose their ability to function normally – Resources become depleted and exhaustion occurs – Increased vulnerability to disease – Why you get sick after exams 14. Cortisol: A hormone produced during a period of stress that triggers an increase in blood sugars, which is then provided to the skeletal muscles along with additional oxygen also suppresses the immune system – Produced by adrenal cortex in the alarm reaction of GAS 15. “Fight-or-flight” response: The stress response – Ability to confront the source of stress (fight) or retreat from it (flight) is enhanced by the stress response 16. Immune system and stress: Stress suppresses the immune system and makes a person more vulnerable to sickness – Release of glucocorticoids suppresses the action of white blood cells – High state of arousal, immune system is compromised 17. Rape trauma syndrome: A pattern of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural responses that occurs in response to the trauma of being raped 18. Neuroticism: A personality trait the involves the tendency to experience high levels of negative emotions and to behave in self-defeating ways 19. Psychosomatic disorders: Disorder with primarily physical symptoms, but caused or maintained by psychological factors – Ex. Hypertension, gastric ulcers – Physical symptoms caused by psychological factors 20. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Severe anxiety disorder – A pattern of distressing symptoms, such as flashbacks, nightmares, avoidance, and anxiety responses that recur after a traumatic experience – Overactivity in the right hemisphere of brain – 4 major groups of symptoms a. Severe anxiety, physiological arousal (the stress response), and distress b. Painful, uncontrollable reliving of the event(s) in flashbacks, dreams, and fantasies c. Emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma d. Intense “survivor guilt” in instances where other were killed but the individual survived 21. Anxiety: Comes from the inability to deal with a stressor – Subjective distress, physiological activation, avoidance or escape behaviour, interference or restriction in daily routine – Ex. Panic attack; panic disorder, phobic disorders, OCD, PSTSD 22. Vulnerability factors: Predispositions that can have a biological basis, such as our genotype, a brain malfunction, or a hormonal factor 23. Protective factors: Environmental or personal resources that help people fare better in the face of stress 24. Social support: One of the most important environmental resources – Social isolation is an important vulnerability factor – Social support enhances immune system functioning 25. Hardiness: A stress-resistant personality pattern that involves of factors of commitment, control, and challenge – Characteristics that help one cope with stress 26. Resilience: The ability to withstand psychological stress – Unexpectedly good recovery or positive growth following stress 27. Coping self-efficacy: Beliefs relating to our ability to deal effectively with a stressful stimulus or situation, including pain – Conviction that we can perform the behaviors necessary to cope successfully 28. Optimism: Positive view of the future – Appraise themselves as being less helpless in the face of stress and adjust better to negative life events 29. Pessimism: Focus on negative aspects – Greater risk for helplessness and depression when they confront stressful events – Twice as many illnesses and visits to doctors as did optimists – Linked to reduced immune system functioning 30. Type A personality: A behavioural pattern involving a sense of time urgency, pressured behaviour, and hostility that appears to be a risk factor in coronary heart disease – Rapid taking, moving, walking, and eating – High levels of competiveness and ambition, aggressiveness and hostility 31. Type B personality: A relaxed and agreeable personality type, with little sense of time urgency 32. Biological factors to stress: Autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system respond to situational stressors, activation of stress response allows us to meet the demands of the stressor, prolonged activation of the stress response can lead to health problems – Ex. Suppression of the immune system 33. Environmental factors to stress: Situational events that exceed an individual’s resources become stressors, factors such as: Severity, predictability, duration, controllability, and chronicity, social support can increase the ability to withstand stressors 34. Psychological factors to stress: Cognitive appraisal of demands, resources, potential consequences, and personal meaning determine whether a life event comes a stressor, personality factors such as: Optimism, self-efficacy, coping strategies, and social support influence how resilient to stress a person is – Experience can have a lasting impact on our ability to cope with stress 35. Physiological toughness: A relationship between two classes of hormones secreted by adrenal glands in response to stress – Levels of both hormones return to baseline after the stressor is dealt with a. Catecholamines: Epinephrine and NE (boosts immune system) b. Corticosteroids: Mainly cortisol (damages it) – People with high physiological toughness respond to stress with low levels of cortisol and spikes in catecholamines 36. Stress and illness: Increases risk of heart attack, cancer and death after the death of a loved one – Also: Arthritis, rheumatism (inflammation), bronchitis, ulcers, asthma, migraines – Increases artery blockage, reduces immune system – Cortisol destroys the hippocampus – Memory disadvantage 37. Problem-focused coping strategies: Coping strategies that involve direct attempts to confront and master a stressful situation 38. Emotion-focused coping: Coping strategies directed at minimizing or reducing emotional responses to a stressor 39. Seeking social support: A class of coping strategies that involves turning to others for assistance and emotional support in times of stress 40. Health psychology: The study of psychological and behavioural factors in the prevention and treatment of illness and in the maintenance of health 41. Health-enhancing behaviours: Behaviours, such as exercise and good dietary habits, that support and increase health and longevity 42. Health-compromising behaviours: Behaviours, such as poor dietary habits and unprotected sexual activity, that impair health and reduce longevity 43. Transtheoretical model: Identifies six major stages in the process of how people change: Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination – People may move up and down through the stages several times before they reach the final stage of termination a. Precontemplation: Problem unrecognized or unacknowledged – No desire to change b. Contemplation: Recognition of problem; contemplating change c. Preparation: Preparing to try to change behaviour d. Action: Implementing change strategies e. Maintenance: Behaviour change is maintained f. Termination: Permanent change; no maintenance efforts required 44. Aerobic exercise: Sustained activity that elevates the heart rate and body’s need for oxygen – Moderate exercise is better than extreme exercise 45. Yo-yo dieting: A form of weight monitoring that results in big up-and-down weight fluctuations; increases the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease 46. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – Cripples the immune system by killing cells that fight against illness – Vaccines are ineffective – Stigmas against condom use (especially African countries) – Gay men are much less affected than women 47. Motivational interviewing: A treatment approach that avoids confrontation and leads clients to their own realization of a problem and to increased motivation to change – Reveals individual’s discrepancies between self and ideal-self 48. Multimodal treatments: Substance abuse interventions that combine a number of treatments, such as aversion therapy and coping skills training – Biological, aversion therapy, relaxation, self-monitoring, coping skills, family counselling to increase social support, positive reinforcement to strengthen change 49. Aversion therapy: The undesired behaviour is associated with an aversive stimulus – Ex. Electric shock or nausea-producing drug – Attempt to create a negative emotional response to the currently pleasurable substance 50. Relapse: A return to a previous undesirable behaviour and an abandonment of attempts to change 51. Lapse: A one-time return to an undesirable behaviour pattern, usually in a high-risk situation 52. Abstinence violence effect: A reaction that can occur when substance misusers fail to remain abstinent and view the lapse as proof that they will never be strong enough to resist temptation; may result in a total relapse 53. Harm reduction: A prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a problem behaviour but to reduce its harmful consequences – Ex. Safe needle clinics, methadone for heroin addicts 54. Positive psychology: Shifts focus from the disease model and towards a science that concentrates on positive human experience – Happiness, well-being, personal strengths, wisdom, creativity, imagination, and the characteristics of positive groups and positive institutions 55. Hedonic well-being: Includes high levels of positive affect and low levels of negative affect 56. Eudaimonic well-being: Feeling of meaning and purpose in life, often derived from helping others CHAPTER 16: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS 1. Abnormal behaviour: Behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive a. Distress to self or others b. Dysfunction for person or society c. Deviance to violate social norms 2. Anxiety disorders: Intense, frequency, or inappropriate anxiety – No loss of reality – Includes: Phobias, generalized anxiety reactions, and panic disorders - A group of behaviour disorders in which anxiety and associated maladaptive behaviours are the core of the disturbance – Onset in young adulthood, most prevalent psychological disorder in North America, more common in females, affects 25% of people 3. Causes of anxiety disorders: Biological factors, psychodynamic view, learned response (behavioural view), cognitive view a. Biological factors: Genetic factors, low levels of GABA activity contribute to highly reactive nervous systems, 40% concordance rates for identical twin, 4% for fraternal, overactivity in the right hemisphere (PTSD) b. Psychodynamic view: Unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defenses c. Learned response (behavioural view): Classical conditioning – Anxiety is learned behaviour – Develop phobia after being bitten by a snake/Observational learning – Develop fear from watching TV/Operant conditioning – Avoidance (agoraphobia) and compulsions are negatively reinforced d. Cognitive view: Patients expect the worst and feel powerless to cope – Ex. Social phobics believe they are more likely to embarrass themselves than others, and believe the consequences are worse 4. Anxiety responses: Have 4 components a. Subjective-emotion: Including feelings of tension and apprehension b. Cognitive: Subjective feelings of apprehension, a sense of impeding danger, and a feeling of inability to cope c. Physiological responses: Including increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth, diarrhea, frequent urination – Other autonomic arousal symptoms d. Behavioural responses: Avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance – Increased startle response 5. Phobias: Strong and irrational fears of particular objects or circumstances 6. Agoraphobia: A phobia centred around open spaces and public places 7. Social anxiety disorder: An excessive and inappropriate fear of social situations in which a person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed; form
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