Study Guides (248,147)
Canada (121,343)
Psychology (1,705)
Prof (4)

Chapter 13 social psychology.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 1000

Chapter 13 social psychology: social influences on human behavior Social  The mere presence of others has an effect  Social facilitation  Studies show an interaction between task difficulty and social context  Specifically:  People and animals perform better in front of others on simple tasks  On complex tasks presence of others seems to produce poorer performance  Social influence affects a wide range of behavior through two major facets  Social norms  Shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave  Social roles  A set of norms for how a person in a social position ought to behave  Informational social influence  We conform because we believe that others are right  Normative social influence  We conform to be accepted by other people Social thinking and perception  Attributions 归因, judgments about the causes of our own and other people’s behavior and outcomes.  Personal vs situational attribution  Personal (internal) attribution infer that people’s behavior is caused by their characteristics.  Situational (external) attribution infers that aspects of situations cause a behavior.  Three types information determine the attribution we made:  Consistency – is the behavior consistent over time?  Distinctiveness 独特性 – is the behavior unique to this situation?  Consensus 共识 – is the behavior shared by others?  When consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus are all high, we make a situational attribution  When consistency is high, while other two are low, we make a personal attribution  Attributional bias  Fundamental attribution error: we underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the personal factors when explaining other people’s behavior.  Self-serving 自我服务偏见 bias : making relatively more personal attribution for successes and more situational attribution for failures. Forming and maintaining impressions  Primary vs recency 崭新的: are first impressions more important?  Primary effects refers to our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person.  Recency effects – giving greater weight t the most recent information.  Mental sets and schemas: seeing what we expect to se  A stereotype, which is a generalized belief about a group or category of people, represents a powerful type of schema.  Self-fulfilling prophecies 自我实现的预言: creating what we expect to see  Fulfilling prophecy 实现的预言 occurs usually without conscious awareness, when people’s erroneous 错误 expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about expected behaviours.  Attitude is a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward s stimulus, such as a person, action, object, or concept. Do our attitudes influence our behavior?  Theory of planned behavior and similar models -- our intention to engage in a behavior is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behavior, when subjective norms (our perceptions of what other people think we should do) support our attitudes, and when we believe that the behavior is under our control.  Attitudes influence behavior more strongly when  Situational factors are weak.  When we are aware of attitudes  When attitudes are strong  When attitudes predict general classes of behavior.  Social comparison theory  Comparison of our beliefs, feelings, and behavior with those of other people  Helps determine whether our responses are “normal” Does our behavior influence our attitudes?  Self-justification  Theory of cognitive dissonance不和谐, people strive 努力的for consistency in their cognitions.  When two or more cognitions (e.g., two attitudes or an attitude and a behavior) contradict one another, the person experiences an uncomfortable state of tension that called cognitive dissonance.  Behavior that is inconsistent with our attitude is called counterattitudinal behavior, and it produces dissonance only if we perceive that our actions were freely chosen rather than coerced 强迫.  Self-perception  Self-perception theory – we make inferences about our own attitudes in much the same way: by observing how we behave.  You simply observe how you have acted, and infer how you must have felt to have behaved in this fashion.  In situations where our attitudes are weak and counterattitudinal behavior doesn’t threaten our self-worth, we may change our attitudes through self-perception.  Self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance theory both predict that counterattitudinal behavour will produce attitude change.  One key difference, however, is that dissonance theory assumes that we experience heightened physiological 生理 arousal 兴奋 (tension 紧张 produced by dissonance) when we engage in counterattitudinal behavior. And attitudes are known.  Self-perception: no arousal and attitudes are inferred. Persuasion  Communicator, message, and audience characteristics influence the effectiveness of persuasion.  The communicator  Communicator credibility – how believable the communicator is – often is the key to effective persuasion.  Credibility has two major components: expertise 专业知识 and trustworthiness 可信性.  Message  Fear-arousing 引发恐惧 communications may be effective if they arouse moderate 中度 to strong fear and suggest how to avoid the feared results.  The message is most effective when:  Arguments are two-sided  Position is slightly discrepant 不一致的 with audience’s  Message evokes moderate fear  The audience  Central route 中央路线 to persuasion occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments 论点 compelling 信服的.  Works well when listeners have a  High personal relevance/ involvement  High need for cognition  Peripheral 外围 route to persuasion occurs when people do not scrutinize 审 议 the message but are influenced mostly by other factors, such as a speaker’s attractiveness (e.g., Good-look person in ad) or a message’s emotional appeal. Social influence The mere presence 存在的 of others  Social facilitation 便利化 – an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others.  Studies show an interaction between task difficulty and social context  Specifically:  People and animals perform better in front of others on simple tasks  On complex tasks presence of others seems to produce poorer performance Social norms: the rules of the game:  Social norms shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave, and they are the cement that binds 混合 social systems together.  Social roles consists of a set of norms for how a person in a social position ought to behave  Informational social influence  We conform because we believe that others are right  Normative social influence  We conform to be accepted by other people Conformity 一致性 and obedience 服从 Why do people conform?  Informational social influence -- At times we follow the options or behavior of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right”.  Normative 规范 social influence – we also may confirm to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while at the same time avoiding their rejection.  Asch (1951) Conformity Study   Ask which of the line in group B has the same length with A. actually, it will be number 2, but when others said it was number 3, only few people would say it is 2.  Factors that affect conformity  Group size  Conformity increases as group size increases up to 4 or 5 confederates 同伙  Conformity does not vary for groups sizes > 5  Presence of a dissenter 异己  Improves accuracy of participant  Even when dissenter is still choosing an incorrect answer.  Minority 少数 influence is strongest when the minority maintains a consistent position over time but does not appear too deviant 离经叛道.  Milgram’s obedience 服从 experiment  Factors influencing obedience  Remoteness 偏远的 of the victim 受害者  More obedience when learner is “out of sight”  Closeness 封闭性 and legitimacy 合法性 of the authority figure  Cog in a wheel  When another participant (actually a confederate) flipped the stock switch and real participants had to perform only another aspect of the task, 93 percent obeyed.  Obedience increases when someone else does the “dirty work”  Demographic 人口 factors are not related.  It doesn’t matter your age, gender,……  Social influences on sex typing  The social learning model  In this model Sex typing is based upon perception of others, identification with others, behavioral reinforcement, and acquisition of sex-appropriate behavior  A boy who perceives his father as attractive and similar to himself will imitate his father’s behavior and mannerisms  Imitation of sex appropriate behavior is enhanced if the child receives approval from others for that behavior.  If disapproval results from that behavior will diminish  Currently it is still the norm that most boys are rewarded for “manly” rough and tumble behavior while girls are rewarded for being sweet and polite.  In this paradigm 范例 sex type identity emerges only after, and as a result of, a child having acquired a set of sex-appropriate behaviors.  Almost as if to say “if a child behaves like a boy the child must be a boy”  More positive sex-role identification is formed if the same sex parent is perceived as powerful.  Social learning and morality  Social learning theorists argue that Morality 道德 is acquired through the observation and imitation 模仿 of older people (as opposed to Piagetian or Erikson like stages)  This is contrary to cognitive approaches as it suggests the child is more a passive recipient 被动的接受者 of adult teachings as it relies on a “modeling hypotheses” for morality much like that employed in sex role typing.  Psycho-social development  Although Erickson’s theory of personality is most often studied in relation to life long development, as an example of a critical periods approach to development, it is relevant in the area of Social psychology  This is because the majority of the periods are linked to aspects of social interaction. Detecting and resisting compliance techniques  Norm of reciprocity 互惠准则 involves the expectation that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind.  Door-in-the-face technique – a persuader makes a large request 请求, expecting you to reject it (you “slam the door 砰门” in the persuader’s face), and then presents a smaller request.  Food-in-the-door technique, a persuader gets you to comply 遵守 with a small request first (getting the “foot in the door) and later represents a larger request.  Lowballing, a persuader gets you to commit to some action and then – before you actually perform the behavior – he or she increase the “cost” of that same behavior. Crowd behavior and deindividuation  Deindividuation 去个性化  A decrease in self-awareness that leads to disinhibited 抑制 behavior.  A temporary lowering 降低 of restraints 约束 that can occur when a person is immersed 沉浸 in a grou
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.