Study Guides (248,644)
Canada (121,651)
Psychology (1,716)
Dr.Mike (231)

Chapter 9 Summary word.doc

10 Pages

Course Code
Psychology 1000

This preview shows pages 1,2 and half of page 3. Sign up to view the full 10 pages of the document.
Chapter 9 Mentalrepresentationsinclude images, ideas, concepts and principles Language - Languageis a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can generate an infinite number of possible messages and meanings - psycholinguisticsis the scientific study of the psychological aspects of language eg. how people understand, produce and acquire language Adaptive Functions of Language - the use of language may have evolved as people gathered to form larger social units - helps us evolve as social creatures as we need to communicate with each other - we also use language in our conscious thinking - eg. talking to ourselves - language also serves as a learning mechanism - we can ask for directions or read about a topic to learn Properties of Language 1. symbolic and structured - uses symbols to represent things and these symbols are arbitrary (the symbol has an agreed-on meaning to people) - has grammar: the set of rules that dictate how symbols can be combined to created mingful units of communication - syntax: the rules that govern the order of words 2. conveys meaning - semantics: the meaning of words and sentences 3. generative and permits displacement - Generativity:the symbols of language can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning - eg. we only have 26 letters but thousands of words and billions of sentences - Displacement: language allows us to communicate about events and objects that are not physically present - eg. we can discuss the past, future, imaginary situations, and people or objects that exist elsewhere The Structure of Language SurfacestructureandDeepStructure - surfacestructureis the symbols that are used and their order - deepstructureis the underlying meaning of the combined symbols - when you have two sentences that are saying the same thing... two surface structures, one deep structure - when you have an ambiguous sentence you will have one surface structure and multiple deep structures TheHierarchicalStructureofLanguage - human language has a hierarchal structure and its building block is the phoneme: the smallest unit of speech sound in a language that can signal a difference in meaning - eg. the phoneme d with og means different than the phoneme l with og - phonemes are then combined into morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in a language - eg. words (dog), prefixes and suffixes (un-), plural (-s) - morphemes form words, then phrases, then sentences - after that is discourse: sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles, books and conversations Understanding and Producing Language TheRoleofBottom-UpProcessing - individual elements of a stimulus are analyzed and then combined to form a unified perception - your brain analyzes the basic elements of the visual patterns and feeds this information to other cell groups that lead you to perceive these patters as letters and then as words TheRoleofTop-DownProcessing - sensory information is interpreted in light of existing knowledge, concepts, ideas and expectations - language involves top-down processing because the words you write, read, speak or hear activate draw on existing knowledge of vocabulary, grammar and other linguistic rules - this is why we can read a sentence with a few letters missing - speechsegmentation: perceiving where each word within a spoken sentence begins and ends occurs automatically in native languages - we know when one word ends and another begins through experience - we also use the context provided by the others words in a sentence to interpret the meaning of any individual word Pragmatics:TheSocialContextofLanguage - understanding language and communicating effectively with others also involves pragmatics: knowledge of the practical aspects of using language - eg. asking Is Billy there? on the phone implies that you would like for the person to get Billy if he is there and to go and get him, not to simply say yes and wait for further instruction - example of how top-down processing influences language use - messages are changed depending on the target - we talk differently to babies than to adults and to adults that don’t speak the language - as well we write differently for a text message to a friend than a formal letter to a boss LanguageFunctions,theBrain,andSexDifferences - Broca’s area in the left hemisphere’s frontal lobe is involved in word production and articulation and Wernicke’s area in the rear portion of the temporal lobe is involved in speech comprehension - damage in either suffer from aphasia: an impairment in speech comprehension and/or production - women’s language functions are shared with the right hemisphere whereas men’s are usually dominated in the left hemisphere Acquiring a First Language BiologicalFoundations - there are several facts that suggest a biological basis for language acquisition - human children masters language early in life without any formal instruction - all adult languages have common underlying structural characteristics - infants can perceive the entire range of phonemes found in the world’s languages but between 6-12 months begin to discriminate sound that are specific to their native tongue - eg. Japanese children stop distinguishing between r and l - Chomsky said that humans are born with languageacquisitiondevice(LAD): an innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules common to all languages - eg. noun phrases and verb phrases that are arranged in particular ways - when a kid learns english there is a switch that says yes to inserting a pronoun before a verb but it is no for spanish - so universal grammar becomes calibrated to the language SocialLearningProcesses - social learning also plays a role in acquiring a language - Skinner explains that children’s language development is strongly governed by adults’ positive reinforcement of appropriate language and nonreinforcement or correction of inappropriate verbalizations - but modern psycholinguists doubt that operant learning principles alone can account for language development - eg. children’s language is very different from their parents - modern theorists suggest an interplay between biological and environmental factors - languageacquisitionsupportsystem(LASS): represents factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language DevelopmentalTimetableandSensitivePeriods - children develop language skills based on a timetable - as well, there seems to be a sensitive period (from infancy to puberty) where the brain is most responsive to learning new languages Bilingualism: Learning a Second Language - second language is learned best and spoken most fluently when learned during the sensitive period of childhood - children are able to differentiate the two languages after age 2, maybe younger - bilingual children show superior cognitive processing compared to monolingual peers - they are also better at perceptual tasks that require to inhibit attention to an irrelevant feature of an object and pay attention to another feature - it is best to learn a second language earlier in life - some believe there is a critical period but evidence can only suggest that there may be a sensitive period - but not to be confused with the fact that they may have had longer exposure to the language Linguistic Influences on Thinking - Linguisticrelativityhypothesis: language not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinking - most psycholinguists do not agree with the assertion that language determines how we think but that it may influence it - can also change our perceptions, the decisions and the conclusions we draw - language can maintain stereotypes but using things like him with certain jobs or characteristics - influences how well we think - eg. english speaking children score worse than asian speaking children in mathematic skills and it may be because of the words and symbols the languages use to represent numbers Thinking Thought Brain and Mind - Lundemo, a patient with epilepsy who got probes put in his brain so he could control the computer with his thoughts - not sure how the brain produces thought, but from a biological level of analysis, it exists as patterns of neural activity - psychological level - propositionalthought: thought that takes the form of verbal sentences that we say or hear in our minds - imaginalthought: another thought mode that consists of images that we can see, hear or feel in our minds - motoricthought: mental representations of motor movements, such as throwing an object Concepts and Propositions - most of our thoughts occurs in the form of propositions: statements that express ideas - consists of concepts combined in a particular way - eg. students are intelligent people - students and intelligent people are concepts, are links them together - concepts: mental categories into which we place objects, activities, abstractions and events that have essential features in common - many concepts are hard to define explicitly so they are defined by prototypes: the most typical and
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1,2 and half of page 3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.