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Psychology 1000

Motivation and Emotion Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology - instinct: an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus - have a genetic basis and do not depend on learning - instinct theory is that instincts motivate much of our behaviour - evolutionary psychologists propose that many motives have evolutionary underpinnings - so to understand motivation we have to look at the adaptive significance of behaviour - motivational tendencies tat had adaptive significance were more likely to be passed from one generation to he next, eventually evolving into genetically based predispositions to act in certain ways Homeostasis and Drive Theory - homeostasis: state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - requires sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system - according to drivetheoryof motivation, disruptions to the homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension - less influential - ppl behave in ways that seem to increase rather than reduce states of arousal - eg. diets Incentive and Expectancy Theories - drives= internal factors - incentives: environmental stimuli that “pull” an organism toward a goal - eg. good grades an incentive for students to study - modern incentive theory - pull of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour, even in the absence of biological need - eg. finishing dinner so no longer hungry but eat dessert - expectancy x value theory (simple expectancy theory) - cognitive perspective - goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of a person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal and the value the individual places on that goal (incentive value) - therefore motivation= expectancy x incentive value - eg. james, allison and matthew all in same calc class but james studies hard to get an A and allison and matthew are fine to pass with a C - james has expectation that working hard will get an A and values that A - Allison has the same expectation but does not value the As - Matthew values an A but believes that it is so hard he does not think studying hard will help him achieve that so he doesn’t even bother - extrinsicmotivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment - reading a textbook for class - intrinsicmotivation: performing an activity for its own sake (you find it enjoyable or stimulating) - reading a novel for fun - overjustification hypothesis - giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic motivation - it will turn rewards from play into work and ti will be difficult to return to play if those rewards are no longer available - eg. making jewelry for fun then selling it will cause a decrease in intrinsic pleasure Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories - psychodynamic theories emphasize that along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel - humanistic viewpoint: we strive for personal growth - needhierarchya progression of need containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top - once our basic physiological needs are satisfied, we focus on our needs for safety and security, and then after those we go to the next level - self-actualizationrepresents the need to fulfill our potential and it is the ultimate human motive - newer theory of motivation is self-determinationtheory - focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: - competence (need to master new challenges and perfect skills) - autonomy is self determination and is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without interference - relatedness (our desire to form meaningful bonds with others - if you fulfill all three you are very happy, if not you have consequences on your well-being - has been strongly supported by research Hunger and Weight Regulation The Physiology of Hunger - metabolismis the body’s rate of energy utilization - hunger is not linked to immediate energy needs as it is combined to other signals to regulate food intake - homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent from running low on energy - it is believed that there is a set point around which body weight is regulated - homeostatic mechanisms will return us close to our original weight - some people believe that it is that homeostatic mechanisms make it harder to keep gaining or losing weight but do not necessarily return us to our original weight Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal - hunger do not depend on the stomach - sensors in te hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations and when it decreases, the liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose - causes a drop rise glucose pattern and contains information that helps the brain regulate hunger - stomach and intestinal distention are both signals that terminate a meal (make you feel full) - when our stomach stretches it sends signals to the brain - but not the only factor - we also release hormones - intestines respond to food by releasing peptides that travel to the brain to decrease eating - one such peptide is CCK(cholecystokinin) Signals that Regulate General Appetite and Weight - fat cells regulate food intake and weight but secreting the hormone leptin - as we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and reaches the brain - influences the neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditure - leptin does not respond directly to food intake, it regulates appetite by increasing the potency of other signals - more leptin means we eat less becuase the mealtime satiety factors make us feel full sooner *summary - Glucose - drop rise pattern increases hunger - CCK - released into blood stream by intestines decreases hunger - leptin - released into bloodstream by fat cells decreases hunger - neuropeptide Y - appetite stimulator Brain Mechanisms - the lateral hypothalamus (LH) seemed to be a hunger on centre - damages in it caused a refusal to eat, even to the point of starvation - the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) seemed to be a hunger off center - damages caused increase in eating - but later found that it wasn’t really that - damages caused changes in eating patterns because it also affects their responsiveness to external stimuli (other than food) and their ability to swallow and digest - also there are axons that go into the the hypothalamus and then fan out - so cutting the axon anywhere will duplicate some of the effects of cutting them in the LH - within the hypothalamus, most pathways involve the paraventricularnucleus(PVN), a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite - when leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it inhibits the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, therefore reducing appetite - when rats lose fat, there is less leptin released and so more neuropeptide Y is active Psychological Aspects of Hunger - behavioural perspective - eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negaively reinforced by hunger reduction - we develop expectation that eating will be pleasurable which becomes an important motivator to seek and consume food - attitudes, habits and psychological needs also regulate food intake - our attitude about food (dieting) as well as habits (eating while watching TV) can make us not eat when we are hungry or continue to eat even though we are not - especially for women, food restriction is a result of social pressures to be thin - in general women tend to think they are heavier and perceive the ideal weight to be thin - leads to dissatisfaction with their body as they believe they need to be thin to be attractive Environmental and Cultural Factors - food availability - poverty regions limits consumption - areas of high amounts of food at low costs increases chances of obesity - food taste and variety - good tastes positively reinforces eating - food variety increases consumption because we get sick of food - aroma or other stimuli that remind you of food - even if you are not hungry if you are in an environment that reminds you of a food you like, you may want to eat - eg. music of ice cream truck, smell of food - result of associating the smell and sight of food with its taste and can trigger hunger as a result of classical conditioning - eat more with others than alone - cultural norms influence when we eat Obesity - there is alot of obesity going on Genes and Environment - heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue - genes count for about 40- 70% - environment has also had an influence - more cheaper food - decrease in physical activity - eg. Pima Indians have predisposed tendency to be obese but with their native diet and way of life, they never had that problem until they adapted the western style of life Dieting and Weight Loss - being fat primes people to be fat because it changes body chemistry and energy expenditure - obese ppl have higher levels of insulin which increases the conversion of glucose into fat - fatter people means its harder for them to exercise and dieting slow basal metabolism because the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure - homeostasis makes it harder for fatter people to lose weight and it takes less calories for them to gain weight - Weight loss is more successful when they diet and work out Sexual Motivation - other than reproduction, another driving factor for sex is pleasure - but often people do not find it pleasurable and there are other factors, such as peer pressure Sexual Behaviour: Patterns and Changes - people who cohabit have sex the most, followed by married couples then single people - men and women have sex with a partner equally often, men masturbate and fantasize about sex more - there has been an increase in the number or premarital sex and a decrease in the age - however, it seems that this leveling off and may decrease as a result of concerns over STDs and cultural focus on a deeper relationship The Physiology of Sex The Sexual Response Cycle - most people go through a four-stage sexualresponsecyclewhen sexually aroused - excitement phase - arousal builds rapidly - blood flow increases to arteries around the genital organs, nipples and breasts causing then to swell - erection and lubrication happens here - plateau phase - respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion (swelling of body areas) and tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm - orgasm phase - rhythmic contractions of muscles surrounding urethra releasing semen/ outer third of vagina - resolution phase - for males follows orgasm - physiological arousal decreases rapidly - for guys in this they have a refractory period where they cannot have another orgasm - females can have two or more orgasms before resolution phase Hormonal Influences - hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland that regulates the secretion of the hormones (gonadotropins) that affect the rate at which gonads (testes and ovaries) secrete androgens - sex hormones - sex hormones have organizational effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics - in the womb embryos form a primitive gonad that has the potential to develop into either testes of ovaries - if it is genetically male, it will develop testes and then as the testes release release sex hormones there typically is sufficient androgen activity to produce a male pattern of genital, reproductive, brain and other organ development - then during puberty the hypothalamus stimulates an increased release of sex hormones from the tests - females develop in the absence of sufficient androgen activity because they do not form testes - also have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behaviour - begins at puberty - males have a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones and their readiness for sex is largely governed by the presence of environmental stimuli eg. a receptive female - females have a cycle where they are sexually receptive only during periods of high sex hormone secretion (estrogen) - for men and women androgens appear to have the primary influence on sexual desire - but desire does not go up and down as blood levels of sex hormones change - there is a baseline level of certain hormones that is necessary to maintain sexual desire - men and women that get their sex hormone producing things removed (ovaries, testes) they have a decrease in sexual desire - but some experienced men can continue to have sex as sexual responsiveness can decrease slower than desire The Psychology of Sex Sexual Fantasy - sexual fantasies alone can trigger erections and orgasms in people - may also enhance sex when done with a partner - shows how mental processes can affect physiological functioning Desire, Arousal and Sexual Dysfunction - psychological factors can also inhibit sexual arousal - eg. getting turned off - people are able to become aroused but do not have the desire - others have the desire but cannot get aroused or stay aroused as a result from things like stress, fatigue and anger - sexual dysfunction is chronic impaired sexual functioning - can be result of drugs, injuries and disease - arousal problems can also be a result of psychologically scarring events like sexual assault Cultural and Environmental Influences Cultural Norms - does alot to shape the expression of human sexuality - here childhood sexuality is suppressed but is encouraged in the Marquesas islands of French Polynesia - in another culture having an orgasm is considered rare and abnormal Arousing Environmental Stimuli - environment can provide sexually arousing stimuli - eg. watching a partner undress - men and women can become aroused to description of explicit sex Pornography, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Attitudes - two viewpoints in predicting pornography’s effects - social learning theory - people learn through observation - therefore because many porn materials model that sex is impersonal and that men are entitled to sex when they want it, men who view such material are more likely to be sexually aggresive toward them - but Freud advocated the catharsis principle - there is an inborn aggressive and sexual impulse that builds up and actions that release this tension provide a catharsis that temporarily returns them to a mroe balanced physiological state - so viewing porn provides a safe outlet for releasing sexual and
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