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Psych 1000 - Chapter 13 Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs

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Chapter 13 Notes - Social thinking/perception – how we perceive our social world - Social influence – how other people influence our behavior - Social relations – how we behave towards other people - There are three aspects of social thinking and perception o Attributions – judgments about the causes of our own and other peoples’ behavior and outcomes  Attributions influence our subsequent behavior and emotions  Personal (internal) attributions – infer that peoples’ behavior is caused by their characteristics  Situational (external attributions) – infer that aspects of the situation cause a behavior  Three types of information determine the attribution we make  Consistency – is the response/behavior consistent over time  Distinctiveness – is the response/behavior distinctive in similar situations  Consensus – do other people respond/behave in a similar way  When these three aspects are high it is likely to be a situational attribution. When consistency is high and the other two are low it is likely a personal attribution  Fundamental attribution error – underestimating the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other peoples’ behavior  When people have time to reflect on their judgments or are highly motivated to be careful the fundamental attribution error is reduced  Self-serving bias – making relatively more personal attributions for success and more situational attributions for failures  Depressed people often display the opposite attribution pattern  Culture also affects how we perceive the social world  Individualistic vs. collectivistic cultures will affect the attributions we make  Underlying psychological principle – a link between holistic thinking and beliefs about causality o Forming and Maintaining Impressions  Primacy effect – our tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person  Initial information may also influence how we perceive subsequent information  Primacy is the general rule of thumb in impression formation, especially for people who dislike ambiguity or uncertainty  Perhaps because make evaluating stimuli quickly was adaptive for our survival  Recency effects – giving greater weight to the most recent information  May occur when we are asked to avoid making snap judgment and carefully consider evidence  Mental set – a readiness to perceive the world in a particular way, which powerfully shapes how we interpret a stimulus  Schemas, mental frameworks that help us organize and interpret information, help create our mental sets  You may fit behavior into the particular schema that is already activated  Stereotype – a generalized belief about a group or category of people  Self-fulfilling prophecy – when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviors, thereby confirming the original impression o Attitudes and Attitude Change  Our attitudes help to define our identity, guide our actions, and influence how we judge people  Attitude – a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus, such as a person, action, object, or concept  Attitudes strongly guide behavior especially when situational factors are weak  Theory of planned behavior – our intention to engage in a behavior is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behavior, when subjective norms (our perceptions of what other people think we should do) support our attitudes, and when we believe that the behavior is under control  Attitudes have a greater influence on behavior when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held  General attitudes are better at predicting general classes of behavior, and specific attitudes are better at predicting specific behaviors  Our behavior may also influence our attitude  Theory of cognitive dissonance – people strive for consistency in their cognition. When two or more cognitions contradict each other, the person experiences an uncomfortable state of tension, known as cognitive dissonance, and becomes motivated to reduce the dissonance and so they will change their cognitions or add new ones  Counterattitudinal behavior – behavior that contradicts attitude, and it produces dissonance only if we perceive that our actions were freely chosen rather than coerced  Dissonance does not always lead to attitude change  Self-perception theory – the theory that we make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave  In general, dissonance theory better explains why people change their views after behaving in ways that openly contradict their clearly defined attitudes, particularly when such behaviors threaten their self-image. If it does not threated self-worth then self-perception theory may provide a better explanation  Persuasion – a communicator who delivers a message through a channel to an audience within a surrounding context  Communicator o Communicator credibility – how believable the communicator, based on expertise and trustworthiness  The message o The two-sided reputational approach is most effective o Fear-arousing communications are effective if they arouse moderate to strong fear and suggest how to avoid the feared result  The audience o Central route to persuasion – when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find the arguments compelling o Peripheral route to persuasion – when people do not scrutinize the message but are influenced mostly by other factors such as emotional appeal o Attitude change from the central routs is deeper and lasts longer o We typically process a message more closely when it is personally relevant but it may also depend on peoples’ need for cognition and their approach to new information - Social Influence o Zajonc proposed that the mere presence of another person increases our arousal, and we become more likely to perform whatever behavior happens to be our dominant/typical response to that specific situation. If it is a difficult task our dominant response is to make errors o Social facilitation – an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others  People and animals perform better in front of others on simple tasks  On complex tasks presence of others seems to produce poorer performance o Social norms – shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave. Social norms are the cement that binds social systems together o Social role – a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave  Role conflict – when the norms accompanying different roles clash o The Social Learning Model  Sex typing is based perceptions, of others, identification with others, behavioral reinforcement, and acquisition of sex- appropriate behavior  Imitation of sex appropriate behavior is enhance if the child receives approval from others for that behavior  Social Learning theorists argue that morality is acquired throught he observation and imitation of older people  This is contrary to cognitive approaches as it suggests the child is more a passive recipient of adult teachings as it relies on a modelling hypotheses morality much like that employed in sex role typing o Norms and roles influence behavior strongly and they can compel a person to act uncharacteristically o Even randomly created groups develop norms o Informational social influence – at times we follow the opinions or behavior of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is right o Normative social influence – conforming to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people, while at the same time avoiding their rejection o Conformity – the adjustment of individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs to a group standard  Asch’s comparison stimuli o Factors that affect conformity  Group size – conformity increases as group size does until a certain level  Presence of a dissenter – when one other person dissents there is less conformity o In some cases the actions of the minority may influence the majority’s behavior  Minority influence is the strongest when it maintains a highly consistent position over time and is reasonable o Depending on the context, obedience can be good or bad  Factors that influence destructive obedience (Milgram electric shock experiment)  Remoteness of the victim – obedience was greater when the learner was out of sight  Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure – obedience is highest when the authority figure was close and perceived as legitimate  Cog in a wheel – obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work  Personal characteristics – personal characteristics may weakly influence obedience  By arranging the situation appropriately, most people can be induced to follow orders from an authority figure they perceive as legitimate, even when doing so contributes to harming innocent people  Compliance techniques – strategies that may manipulate you into agreeing  Norm of reciprocity – the expectation that when others treat us well, we should respond in kind  Door-in-the-face technique – a persuader makes a large request, expecting you to reject it and then presents a smaller request  Foot-in-door techniques – a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and the presents a lar
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