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Psych 1000 - Chapter 11 Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 11 Notes - Motivation – a process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior - Perspectives on Motivation o Instinct Theory and Evolutionary Psychology  Instincts motivate much of our behavior  Instinct – an inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus  Modern evolutionary psychologists propose that many psychological motives have evolutionary underpinnings that are expressed through the actions of genes  Adaptive significance of behavior – We are motivated to engage in behavior that promotes survival advantages o Homeostasis and Drive Theory  Homeostasis – A state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain  Maintaining homeostasis requires a sensory mechanism for detecting changes in the internal environment, a response system that can restore equilibrium, and a control centre that receives information from the sensors and activates the response system  Drive Theory – Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension. Drives, such as hunger or thirst, arise form tissue deficits and provide a source of energy that pushes an organism into action. The ultimate goal of motivated behavior is to reduce drives (Hull, 1943, 1951) o Incentive and Expectancy Theories  Incentives – environmental stimuli that pull an organism toward a goal  Incentive theories focus attention on external stimuli that motivate behavior  Expectancy theories of motivation include the value of incentives but take a cognitive perspective to understand why people often respond differently to the same incentive  Expectancy x value theory proposes that goal-directed behavior is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular values will lead to a goal, and the value that the individual places on that goal (incentive value (Brehm & Self, 1989))  Motivation = Expectancy x Incentive Value  Extrinsic motivation – performing an activity to obtain an external reward of avoid punishment  Intrinsic motivation – performing an activity for its own sake, because you find it enjoyable or stimulating  Overjustification hypothesis – giving people extrinsic rewards to perform activities that they intrinsically enjoy may overjustify that behavior and reduce intrinsic motivation o Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories  Freud’s (1923) psychoanalytic theory highlighted the motivational underworld. He suggested that much of our behavior results from a never-ending battle between unconscious impulses struggling for release and psychological defenses used to keep them under control (dual-instinct model)  Today’s psychodynamic theories emphasize that along with conscious mental processes, unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel  Humanist Abraham Maslow believe that psychology’s other perspectives ignored key motive which is our strife for personal growth  Maslow (1954) proposed the concept of a need hierarchy, a progression of needs containing deficiency needs (needs concerned with physical and social survival) at the bottom, and growth needs (needs that are uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential) at the top  Deci and Ryan (1985, 2009) proposed the self-determination theory, which focuses on three fundamental psychological needs: competency, autonomy, and relatedness. People are satisfied when they able to fulfill these needs, but when they are not met there can be consequences for both psychological and physical well-being  Competence motivation – reflects a human need to master new challenges and perfect skills, this motivates much exploratory and growth-inducing human behavior  Autonomy – this need is satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without outside interference  Relatedness – our desire to form meaningful bonds with others - Hunger and Weight Regulation o The physiology of hunger  Metabolism – the body’s rate of energy or caloric utilization  About two-thirds of the energy we normally use goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells  There are several mechanisms that regulate energy homeostasis such as short term signals which produce or hunger or satiety (the state in which we feel full), and long- term signals which adjust appetite and metabolism based on how much body fat you have  Digestive enzymes break down food into various nutrients, namely glucose, a simple sugar that is the body’s major source of immediately usable fuel. After a meal, some glucose is transported into cells to provide energy but most of it is transferred to your liver and fat cells where it is converted into other nutrients and stored for later use.  Sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations and convert stored nutrients back into glucose when needed creating a drop-rise glucose pattern which may help the brain regulate hunger  As we eat, several body signals combine and cause us to end our meal, such as stomach and intestinal digestion (Striker & Verbalis, 1987), sending nerve signals to the brain  Patients who have had their stomachs removed also feel satiety due to chemical signals.  Fat cells are not passive storage sites for fat; rather they actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin (a hormone that decreases appetite). As we gain fat, more leptin is secreted into the blood and this influences neural pathways to decrease appetite and increase energy expenditures  Leptin may increase appetite by increasing the potency of other signals. We eat less because the mealtime satiety signals make us feel full sooner  Coleman and Zhang proved this with obese mice (had ob gene and lacked leptin) when they were given leptin injections made them thinner. Mice who had the db gene (too much leptin) were insensitive to the satiety signals and so leptin injections did not work. These conditions are rare in humans  Early experiments indicated that the lateral hypothalamus (LH) was a hunger-on-centre and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) was the hunger-off-centre but this is not exactly true, there are other factors involved o Psychological aspects of hunger  From a behavioral perspective, eating is positively reinforced by the good taste of food and negatively reinforced by hunger reduction  Attitudes, habits, and psychological needs also regulate food intake  Anorexics – have an intense fear of being fat and severely restrict footd intake to the point of starvation. They are often perfectionists and have a need for control and they show abnormal activity of serotonin  Bullimics – are overconcerned about being fat they binge eat and then purge food. They tend to be depressed, anxious, and they lack a sense of personal identity and self-sufficiency  Food restriction often stems from social pressures to conform to cultural standards of beaut  Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) – Western cultures teaches women to view their body as objects much as external observers would. This increases body shame and anxiety which leads to eating restriction and disorders  One in five adolescent young females report being happy with their weight, even when body weight is within a normal healthy range  People are very sensitive to changes in environmental stimuli (ex. portion size, the number of people present during a meal)  Food availability – people who live in poverty limit food consumption, while abundant low-cost food contributes to high obesity rates  Food taste and variety – good food and variety positively reinforce eating  Through classical conditioning, the smell and sight of food can also induce hunger  We may also eat more when dining with other people  We want variety but we like to select from familiar foods  Heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue. Genetic factors appear to account for about 40-70% of the variation in body mass  The environment also plays a part due to  An abundance of inexpensive, tasty, high-fat foods  Cultural emphasis on getting the best value which contributes to supersizing  Technological advances that decrease the need for daily physical activity and encourage a sedentary lifestyle  High levels of dopamine make some people especially sensitive to the rewarding properties of food  Fat primes people to stay fat  Health concerns motivate some dieters but the biggest thing is psychological and social concerns - Sexual Motivation o The Physiology of Sex  Masters and Johnson (1953) examined the sexual responses of men and women in laboratory conditions  Findings: (1966)  Most people go through a four stage sexual response cycle when aroused  The excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly, blood blow increases to arteries and around genital organs which causes them to swell (vasocongestion), muscle tension increases  Plateau phase – respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm  Orgasm phase – in males, rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project semen. In females, orgasm involves rhythmic contractions of the outer third of the vagina, surrounding muscles, and the uterus  Resolution phase – Physiological arousal decreases rapidly and the genital organs and tissues return to their normal condition. Males enter a refractory period during which they are temporarily incapable of another orgasm. Females can have successive orgasms but it is usually unlikely  The hypothalamus plays a key role in sexual motivation; it controls the pituitary gland, which regulates the gonadotropins in the bloodstream. The gonadotropins affect the rate at which the gonads secrete androgens and estrogens  Sex hormones have organization effects that direct the development of male and female sex characteristics  If an embryo is genetically male, it forms testes about 8 weeks after conception, which then release sex hormones during a key period of prenatal development, which provides sufficient androgen activity to produce a male pattern of genital, reproductive, brain, and other organ development. Years later, the hypothalamus stimulates an increased release of sex hormones from the testes when the male reaches puberty  Similar but opposite for females  Sex hormones have activational effects that stimulate sexual desire and behavior, which begins at puberty. Males have a relatively constant secretion of sex hormones and their readiness for sex is largely governed by environmental stimuli. Hormone secretions in females follow an estrus cycle, and they are sexually receptive only during periods of high estrogen secretion  In humans, normal short-term hormonal fluctuations have relatively little effect on sexual arousability  Androgens appear to have the primary influence on sexual desire. A baseline level of certain hormones is necessary to maintain sexual desire o The Psychology of Sex  Sexual Fantasy  Fantasy illustrates how mental processes can affect physiological functioning  Most men and women also fantasize during sexual intercourse  People who are more sexually active tend to fantasize more  Desire, Arousal, and Sexual Dysfunction  Psychological factors can also inhibit sexual arousal  Many people who are physiologically capable of becoming sexually aroused simply do not have the desire  Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can lead to temporary arousal problems  Sexual dysfunction – chronic, impaired sexual functioning that distresses a person  Performance anxiety can cause both types of problems, and arousal difficulties may also be a psychological consequence of sexual assault or childhood sexual abuse  Cultural, and Environmental Influences  Cultural norms – culture has the power to shape the expression of human sexuality. Marquesans are very open about sex, while it is a taboo among Inis Beag inhabitants. What is considered, proper, moral, and desirable varies enormously across cultures  Arousing Environmental Stimuli – the environment can also provide sexually arousing stimuli  Porn, Sexual Violence, and Sexual Attitudes – sexually explicit material is a multi-billion dollar industry. On the other hand, 39% of adult Canadian women have had at least one experience of some form of sexual assault, and most rapes are not committed by strangers  Social learning theory – people learn through observation and so exposure to porn fosters sexual violence  Catharsis principle – as inborn aggressive and sexual impulses build up, actions that release this tension provide a catharsis that temporarily
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