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Psych 1000 - Chapter 6 Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Consciousness - State of consciousness –a pattern of subjective experience; a way of experiencing internal and external events - Altered state of consciousness – a variation from the normal waking state - Consciousness – our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment o It is subjective and private o It is dynamic o It is self-reflective and central to our sense of self - Consciousness has many facets (pre-conscious, conscious, etc.) - Measuring states of consciousness o Self-reports (often the most direct but not the most verifiable o Physiological measures (using electrodes to measure brain activity) o Behavioral measures (because consciousness can also be interpreted by what we do instead of what we think) - Freud’s Levels of Consciousness o The conscious mind  The tip of the iceberg  Current awareness of thoughts and perceptions and other mental events o The preconscious mind  Outside current awareness  Can be recalled under certain conditions o The unconscious mind  Unavailable to consciousness  Includes instincts such as sex drive and aggression - Ego Superego } Conscious  The superego is in a sense your conscience - The Cognitive Unconscious (Reisberg, 1997) o Reject the notion of an unconscious mind driven by instinctive urges and repressed conflicts o Rather they see it as complementary forms of information processing o The cognitive unconscious works in harmony with our conscious thoughts o Controlled processing – voluntary use of attention and conscious processing/effort o Automatic processing – activities carried out with little or no effort which may not require or give rise to conscious awareness  Can reduce the chances of finding new ways to approach problems but it offers speed and economy of effort  Divided Attention – the ability to perform more than one activity at the same time - Consciousness o The Emotional Unconscious  Unconscious process can affect emotion and motivation and behavior o The Modular Mind  Interacting “modules” or brain networks for sensation, perception, memory, emotions etc. alter our consciousness - Circadian Rhythms o Daily biological cycles where body temperature, certain hormonal secretions, and other bodily functions undergo a rhythmic change that affects mental alertness and readies our passage back and forth between states of wakefulness o Are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus  They link to the pineal gland which secretes melatonin (a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body) o Free running circadian rhythm – when there is a longer natural cycle of about 24.2 to 24.8 hours o Environmental factors like the day-night also affect circadian rhythms - Circadian Rhythm Disruption o Season Affective Disorder  Gradual and/or sudden environmental changes in circadian rhythms  Tendency to become depressed during certain months of the year  Linked to northern latitudes (more prevalent in Canada than US) o Jet Lag  Causes insomnia, decreased alertness, and poorer performance  Oral Melatonin can reset circadian rhythms if taken o Nightshift work  Shift to Daylight Savings (spring) leads to temporary increase in accidental deaths  Rotating shiftwork – a forward rotating work schedule that takes advantage of the fact that it is easier to extend the waking day than to compress it - Your brain emits beta waves when youre awake and alert and alpha waves as you begin to feel relaxed and drowsy - Stages of Sleep o Stage 1 – Theta Waves (light sleep where you can easily be awakened with slow cycles) o Stage 2 – Sleep Spindles (periodic bursts of rapid brain wave activity, you are more relaxed and harder to awaken) o Stage 3 – Delta waves (very slow and large waves o Stage 4 – Deep Sleep o REM – Dreams (rapid eye movement, similar to brain activity during wakefulness) - Characteristics of REM sleep o REM dreams are longer than non-REM (NREM) stages o Physiological arousal increases  Heart-rate quickens  Breathing more irregular and rapid  Brainwave activity resembles wakefulness  Genital arousal o May be involved in memory consolidation - Sleep Deprivation o Short-term sleep deprivation  Up to 45 hours without sleep o Long-term sleep deprivation  More than 45 hours without sleep o Partial deprivation  No more than 5 hours a night for 1 or more nights o Sleep loss affects mood, cognitive performance and physical performance - Theories of Sleep o Restoration Model  Sleep allows us to recharge our bodies and recover from physical and mental fatigue o Evolutionary/circadian rhythm model  Sleep’s main purpose is to increase a species’ chance of survival in relation to its environmental demands  Over the course of evolution, species developed a circadian sleep-wake patter that was adaptive in terms of whether it was predator or prey, its food requirements and its methods of defense from attack - REM-rebound effect – a tendency to increase the amount of REM-sleep after being deprived of it - Sleep Disorders o Insomnia – Chronic difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing restful sleep  Has biological, psychological, and environmental causes o Narcolepsy – extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable sleep  Probably due to a genetic predisposition combined with environmental factors o Sleep apnea – Breathing stops and restarts during sleep (affected by weight and obesity due to fat muscles o REM-Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) – when the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM sleep paralysis is absent o Sleepwalking (typically occurs during stage 3 or 4 of sleep)  May be inherited o Nightmares and night terrors (most common during deep sleep) - Dreaming o We dream when the brain is active (Antrobus 1991, 1995)  More in REM than in NREM  Brain activity is also higher during the final hours of sleep o Hypnagogic state – the transitional state from wakefulness through early stage 2 sleep) - Why do we dream? o Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory  Wish fulfillment  Manifest content – the surface story the dreamer reports  Latent content – the disguised psychological meaning of the manifest content o Activation Synthesis Theory (Hobson & McCarley, 1977)  Brainstem bombards higher brain centers with random neural activity  Cerebral cortex interprets activity creates a dream  Dreaming does not have a function it is jus a by-product of REM- neural activity o Problem-solving dream models – dreams help us solve a problem because they are not constrained by reality o Cognitive-process dream theories – dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain - Multiple Perspectives and Dreams o Dreams may be viewed from different perspectives 1. Re-evocation of conscious behavior as they affect overt behavior 2. Biological perspective – brain waves o Cognitive Process Dream Theories  Proposes that dreaming and waking thought are produced by the same mental systems in the brain  The same cognitive, motivational and emotional areas that contribute to conscious thought also are active for dreaming 3. Dreams as Thinking or Cognition (you can’t dream what you don’t know) 4. Cultural Influences and Dreams 5. As a resolution to internal conflict (Freud’s wish fulfillment) (a way to acquire experiences which while conscious are unattainable or morally forbidden) 6. Developmental aspects of dreaming (in early childhood dreams aren’t easily distinguished from reality – they may be perceived as physical) - Daydreaming (Singer, 1997) o Provides stimulation during periods of boredom o Allows us to experience positive emotions o Most persons report daydreaming involves pleasant situations and positive outcomes Drugs and the Brain - How do drugs enter the body o Oral Administration o Absorption through the Skin (Transdermal) (ex. nicotine patches) o Absorption through mucous membranes (ex. Snorting drugs) o Injection  Venous (iv, drip, or mainlining)  Subcutaneous (Sub-Q, or skin popping__  Intramuscularly (i.m.) o Inhalation - Drug Absorption o Injecting a drug directly into the rain allows it to act quickly in low doses because there are no barriers o Taking a drug orally is the safest, easiest, and most convenient way to administer them o Drugs that are weak acids pass from the stomach into the bloodstream o Drugs that are weak bases pass from the intestines to the bloodstream o Drugs injected into muscle encounter more barriers than do drugs that are inhaled o Drugs inhaled into the lungs encounter few barriers en route to the brain o Drugs injected into bloodstreams encounter the fewest barriers to the brain but must be hydrophilic (must be able to dissolve in liquid) - How do drugs enter the brain o In order to have an effect on the nervous system, drugs must enter the brain, for this they must be able to cross through the blood brain barrier  Diffusion  Active Transport o In general, drugs which are more fat soluble pass the bbb more easily (heroin vs. morphine) o Exceptions (some areas are not protected by the bbb)  Area postrema – important for inducing regurgitation when toxins are present in the bloodstream (but this area assumes that all toxins were ingested because the brain was not built with the knowledge of injections)  Pineal gland - needs access to blood to monitor hormone levels regulating the dark-light cycle (circadian rhythms)  Pituitary gland – needs access to blood to mon
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