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Psych 1000 - Chapter 17 Notes.docx

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 17 Notes - The basic goal of all treatment approaches is to help people change maladaptive, self-defeating thoughts, feelings, and behavior patterns so that they can live happier and more productive lives - The relationship between the client and the person providing help is a prime ingredient of therapeutic success - There are two general approaches o Psychotherapies  Emotional cognitive and behaviorally based o Somatic therapies  Biologically based - Psychodynamic therapies o Psychoanalysis  The goal is to help clients achieve insight, the conscious awareness of the psychodynamic that underlie their problems  Insight may permit them to adjust their behavior to their current life situations, rather than continuing the old maladaptive routines learned in childhood  Analysts believe that psychic energy that was previously devoted to keeping the unconscious conflict under control can be released and redirected to more adaptive ways of living  Free association – the procedure of verbalizing all thoughts that enter consciousness without censorship which may lead to clues concerning important themes or issues  Dream interpretation – psychoanalysts believe dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that the client’s defenses keep in the unconscious during the waking hours. Dream interpretation involves search for the unconscious material in the dream  Resistance – defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy. It is important to explore the reasons for resistance  Transference – when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if he or she were an important figure from the client’s past. It can be positive or negative and it brings out repressed feelings and maladaptive behavior patterns that the therapist can point out to the client  Interpretation – any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client with insight into their behavior or dynamics o Brief Psychodynamic Therapies  Clients are seen less often and therapy is more focused  Interpersonal therapy – highly structured therapy, which takes about 15 to 30 sessions and focuses on the client’ current interpersonal problems - Humanistic Psychotherapies o Client-centered therapy – developed by Carl Rogers who was convinced that the active ingredient in therapy is the relationship that develops between client and therapist. He determined three important and interrelated therapist attributes  Unconditional positive regard – therapists show clients that they genuinely care about them and accept them, without judgment or evaluation, and there is a sense of trust  Empathy – the willingness and ability to view the world through the client’s eyes  Genuineness – Consistency the way the therapist feels and the way they behave, they must be open enough to honestly express feelings, whether positive or negative o Gestalt Therapy  The goal is to bring the feelings, wishes, interactions and thoughts that are in the background and blocked from ordinary awareness to immediate awareness so that they client can be whole once again o Common themes in Humanistic Therapy  Emotional defusing  Various intense and unrealistic fears to be evoked in sessions  Interpersonal learning  Therapeutical relationship is an important tool for self- learning  Insight  Insight into the present feelings  Therapy is step-by-step process  Gradual process – no instant cure  Some flashes of insight  Primarily each new skill discovered must be practiced in daily life before client can say it is their own  Therapy is a social acceptable practice  Psychotherapists designated role of emotional healers  Provides a confiding relationship that is confidential  Individuals who seek therapy do so with the hope they will improve and have a better life - Cognitive Therapies o Focus on the role of the irrational and self-defeating thought patterns o Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy  Activating event – triggers the emotion  Belief system – underlies the way in which a person appraises the event  Consequences – emotional and behavioral consequences of the appraisal  Disputing – challenging an erroneous belief system o Beck’s Cognitive Therapy  Goal is to point out errors of thinking and logic that underlie emotional disturbance and help clients identify and reprogram their overlearned automatic thought patterns  Self-instructional training – a cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive self-instructions to oneself at crucial phases of the coping process - Behavior Therapies o Behavior therapists insisted that behavior disorders are learned in the same way normal behaviors are, and maladaptive behaviors can be unlearned by applications of principles derived from research on classical and operant conditioning o Classical Conditioning Treatment  Exposure  Phobias and other fears result from classically conditioned emotional responses  The solution is a process of classical extinction of the anxiety response  It requires exposure to the feared CS in the absence of the UCS while using response prevention to keep the operant avoidance response from occurring  Flooding – the client is exposed to real-life stimuli  Implosion therapy – the client is asked to imagine scenes involving the stimuli  These stimuli will evoke considerable anxiety, but the anxiety will extinguish in time if the person remains the presence of the CS and the UCS does not occur  Systematic Desensitization  A new learning-based treatment for anxiety disorders  Eliminates the anxiety by counterconditioning, in which a new response that is incompatible with anxiety is condition to the anxiety-arousing CS  The first step is to train the client in the skill of voluntary muscle relaxation  Then they must construct a stimulus hierarchy of low- anxiety to high-anxiety scenes relating to fear  When the client can imagine the scene for increasingly longer periods f time without anxiety, the therapist proceeds to the next scene.  In vivo desensitization – desensitization through carefully controlled exposure to a hierarchy of real-life situations  Aversion Therapy  The therapist pairs a stimulus that is attractive to a person and that stimulates deviant or self-defeating behavior with a noxious UCS in an attempt to condition an aversion to the CS  Treatment effects from the aversion therapies often fail to generalize from the treatment setting to the real world o Operant Conditioning Treatments  Behavior modification – treatment techniques that involve the application of operant conditioning procedures in an attempt to increase or decrease a specific behavior  Positive reinforcement  Long-term psychiatric hospitalization often results in the gradual loss of social, personal-care, and occupational skills needed to survive outside the hospital  Token economy – a system for strengthening desired behaviors, such as personal grooming, appropriate social responses, housekeeping behaviors, working on assigned jobs, and participation in vocational training programs, through the systematic application of positive reinforcement  A specified number of tokens is given for performance of each desired behavior, and the tokens can be redeemed for a wide range of tangible reinforcers  Therapeutic Use of Punishment  Punishment is the least preferred way to control behavior because of its aversive qualities and the potential negative side effects so its is used only if the it is justified and there are no alternatives  Modeling and Social Skills Training  Social Skills Training – clients learn new skills by observing and then imitating a model who performs a socially skillful behavior  The key factor underlying the effectiveness of social skills training is increased self-efficacy - Third-Wave Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies o Mindfulness Based Treatments  Mindfulness – a mental state of awareness, focus, openness, nonjudgmental appraisal and acceptance of immediate experience  Meditation is important because it helps decrease cognitive and physiological arousal. It can also be used for relapse prevention  Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)  Teaches clients to notice, accept, and embrace their thoughts and feelings, even pre
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