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Midterm #1 psychology definitions all the definitions you need to know for psychology #1 midterm, number two will be uploaded shortly. every definition that should be known to do well on the midterm!

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 1: The Science of Behaviour Applied research: research involving the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems involves the application of knowledge derived from basic research Artificial intelligence: the field within cognitive science that attempts to develop computer simulations of human mental processes Basic research: research designed to obtain knowledge for its own sake Behaviour genetics: the scientific study of the role of genetic inheritance in behaviour Behaviour modification: therapeutic procedures based on operant conditioning principles, such as positive reinforcement, operant extinction, and punishment Biological perspective: perspective that focuses on the role of biological factors in behaviour, including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors Behaviourism: school of psychology that emphasizes the role of learning and environmental control over behaviour, and maintains that the proper subject matter of psychology is observable behaviour; John Watson and B.F. Skinner were major figures in behaviourism British empiricism: 17 century school of philosophy championed by John Locke, according to which all the contents of the mind are gained experientially through the senses; this notion was later a cornerstone for the behaviourists position that we are shaped through our experiences Cognitive behaviourism: behavioural approach that incorporates cognitive concepts, suggesting that the environment influences our behaviour by affecting our thoughts and giving us information; these cognitive processes allow us to control our behaviour and the environment Cognitive perspective: psychological perspective that views humans as rational information processors and problem solvers, and focuses on the mental processes that influence behaviour Collectivism: a cultural factor that emphasizes the achievement of the group rather than individual goals and in which personal identity is largely defined by ties to the larger social groups Culture: the enduring values, beliefs, behaviours, and traditions that are shared by a large group of people and passed from one generation to the next Evolutionary psychology: a field of study that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes (especially natural selection) in the development of adaptive psychological mechanisms and social behaviour in humans Functionalism: an early school of American psychology that focused on the functions of consciousness and behaviour in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs Gestalt psychology: a German school of psychology that emphasized the natural organization of perceptual elements into wholes, or patterns, as well as the role of insight in problem solving Humanistic perspective: a psychological perspective that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, and self-actualization Hysteria: a psychological disorder studied and treated by Freud in which physical symptoms appear without any apparent underlying organic cause Individualism: a cultural characteristic that favours the achievement of the individual over group goals and which is characteristic of many Western nations; self-identity is based primarily on ones own attributes and achievements Insight: in Gestalt psychology, the sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem; in psychoanalysis, the conscious awareness of unconscious dynamics that underlie psychological problems Interaction: in analyzing causal factors, the influence that the presence or strength of one factor can have on other causal factors Introspection: the method of looking within and verbally reporting on immediate experience; used by the structuralists to study the contents of the mind Jigsaw program: an applied research program in which knowledge gained from basic research on factors that increase and decrease intergroup hostility was translated into a cooperative learning program designed to reduce interracial hostility in racially integrated schools Levels of analysis: an approach to analyzing behavioural phenomena and their causal factors in terms of biological, psychological and environmental factors Mind-body dualism: the philosophical position that the mind is a non-physical entity that is not subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to physical processes; body and mind are separate entities Monism: the philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the brain, so that mind and body are one and the same Natural selection: the evolutionary process through which characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival are preserved in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time Norms: test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals scores; behavioural rules Perspectives: a theoretical vantage point from which to analyze behaviour and its causes Psychodynamic perspective: a psychological perspective that focuses on inner personality dynamics, including the role of unconscious impulses and defences, in understanding behaviour Psychology: the scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it Repression: the basic defence mechanism that actively keeps anxiety-arousing material in the unconscious Self-actualization: in humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of ones full potential Social constructivism: the position that people construct their reality and beliefs through their cognitions Socio-biology: an evolutionary theory of social behaviour that emphasizes the role of adaptive behaviour in maintaining ones genes in the species gene pool Sociocultural perspective: a perspective that emphasizes the role of culture and the social environment in understanding commonalties and differences in human behaviour Structuralism: an early German school of psychology established by Wilhelm Wundt that attempted to study the structure of the mind by breaking it down into basic components, thought to be sensations Terror management theory: a theory that focuses on the way people defend against the fear of death
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