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Psych Chapter 1 and 2 Midterm Psychology Frontiers and Application Test Review.docx

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Psychology 1000
Peter Pada...

Definitions Chapter 1 and 2Basic Research research designed to obtain knowledge for its own sake Applied Researchresearch involving the application of scientific knowledge to solve practical problems Levels of Analysis an approach to analyzing behavior phenomena and their factors in terms of biological psychological and environmental factors Perspective theoretical vantage point from which to analyze behaviour Mind Body Dualism the philosophical position that the mind is nonphysical entity that is not subject to physical laws and cannot be reduced to a physical processes body and mind are separate entitiesMonismthe philosophical position that mental events are reducible to physical events in the brain so that mind and body are one and the same thBritish Empiricism 17 century school of philosophy championed by John Locke according to which all the contents of the mind are gained experientially through senses this notion was a corner stone for behaviourists position that we are shaped through our experiences Structuralism an early german school of psychology establish Wilhelm Wundt that attempted to studythe structure of the mind by breaking it down into basic components thought to be sensations Functionalism a early school of American psychology that focused on the functions of consciousness and behavior in helping organism adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs Psychodynamic Perpsective a psychological perspective that focuses on inner personality dynamics including the role of unconscious impulses and defenses in understanding behavior Psychoanalysis the analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces Behavioural Perspective a view that emphasizes the manner in which the environment and the learning experiences it provides shape and control behaviour Behaviourism school of psychology emphasizes the role of learning and environmental control over behavior mmaintains that the proper subject matter of psychology is observable behavior John B Watson BF Skinners major figures Behaviour Modification therapeutic procedures based on operant conditions principles such as positive reinforcement operant extinctionpunishment Cognitive Behaviourism behavioural approach that incorporates cognitive concepts suggesting that the environment influences our behavior by affecting our thoughts and giving us information these cognitive processes allow us to control our behavior and the environment Humanistic Perspective psychological perspective tht emphasizes personal freedom choice and self actualization Positive Psychologythe study of human strengths fulfillment and optimal living Cognitive Perspective psychological perspective that views humans as rational information processors and problem solvers and focuses on the mental processes that influence the behaviour Gestalt Psychology a german school of psychology that emphasized the natural organization of perceptual elements into wholes or patterns as well as the role of insight in problem solving Cognitive Neuroscience the study of the brain activity of people engaging in cognitive tasks Culture the enduring values beliefs behaviours and tradition that are shared by a large group of people passed down from one generation to the next Norms test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals scores behavioral rules Cultural Psychology the study of how culture is transmitted to a societys members Biological Perspective perspective that focuses on the role of biological factors in behavior including biochemical and brain processes as well as genetics and evolutionary factors Neurotransmitters chemical substances that are released from the axons of one neuron travel across the synaptic space and bind to specially keyed reciptors in another neuron where they produce a chemical reaction that is either excitatory or inhibitoryBehaviour Genetics the scientific study of the role of genetics inheritance in behaviour Natural Selection theevolutionary process through which characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival are preserved in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time Evolutionary Psychology a gield of study that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes especially natural selection in the development of adaptive psychological mechanisms social behavior in humans Interaction in analyzing casual factors the influence that the presence or strength of one factor can have on other casual factors Theoryaset of formal statements that explain howwhy certain eventsphenomenons are related to one another Variable any characteristics of an organism or situation that can differ Operational Definition defining a concept or variable in terms of specific procedures used to produce or measure it Social Desirability Bias tendency of people to exaggerate their positiveminimize their negative qualities Reaction time how rapidly a person responds to stimulus Reliable the psychological testing the consistency with which a measure assesses a given characteristics or different observers agree on a given score the degree to which clinicians show high levels of agreement in their diagnostics decisions
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