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Psych 1000 3rd test defintions and concepts.pdf

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

CHAPTER 9 Mental representations – cognitive representations of the world (images, ideas) that are the foundation of thinking and problem solving Language- a system of symbols and rules for combining them that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings Psycholinguistics – the scientific study of the psychological aspects of language, such as how people understand, produce and acquire language Grammar – a set of the rules that dictates how symbols can be combined to create meaningful units of communication Syntax – The rules that govern word order in a language Semantics – the meaning of words and sentences Generativity – symbols of language can be combined to generate an infinite number of messages that have novel meaning Displacement – language allows us to communicate about events nd objects that are not physically present Surface structure – words and organization of a spoken or written sentence; two sentences with different surface structure may have the same meaning Deep structure – underlying meaning of a sentence; the meaning that make up deep structure are stored as concepts and rules in long term memory Phoneme- smallest unit of speech that can convey difference in meaning (sounds) Morpheme – smallest units of meaning (words, prefexes, suffixes) Discourse – sixth level of language hierarchial structure in which sentences are combined into paragraphs, articles and conversations (phonemes – morphemes – words – phrases – sentence – discourse) Bottom up processing – individual elements of a stimulus are analyzed and then combined to form a unified perception The role of top down processing – sensory information is interpreted in light of existing knowledge/ideas/ expectations. Speech segmentation – perceiving the beginning and ending of each word within a spoken sentence Pragmatics – acknowledgement of the practical aspects of using language – helps understand true meaning of phrases and vice versa (top down processing) Aphasia – impairment of speech comprehension and/or production depending on where damage is in the brain. Permanent or temporary – indication that language = left hemisphere for men, shared for women. Language acquisition device (LAD) – Chompsky proposed that humans are born with this – an innate biological mechanism that contains the general grammatical rules (“universal grammar”) common to all languages Language Acquisition Support System (LASS) – proposed by Bruner, this term represents factors in the social environment that facilitate the learning of a language Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis – Whorf’s idea that people’s language determines the ways in which they perceive and think about the world Propositional Thought – Thinking that takes the form of verbal sentences that we say or hear in our minds Imaginal Thought – Thinking that uses images that can be from any sense modality (seeing, hearing, feeling) Motoric Thought – Mental representation of motor movements (i.e. throwing an object) Propositions – Statement expressing an idea in subject-predicate form (i.e. University students are intelligent people) Concepts – Basic units of semantic memory – mental categories containing similar objects, people, or events. (From the example above, the two concepts are university students and intelligent people) Prototypes – The most typical and familiar members of a class that defines a concept Deductive Reasoning – Reasoning from a general principle to a specific case – basis of formal mathematics and logic (if premises are true, conclusion must be true) Inductive Reasoning – Reasoning from a set of specific facts to a general conclusion or principle – more possibility for error as you infer based on the facts, the conclusion is not certain to be correct Belief Bias – Tendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefs Framing – Idea that the same information, problem or options can be structured and presented in different ways to influence perception (i.e. people more likely to agree to surgery with 50% SUCCESS rate rather than 50% FAILURE rate, despite the fact that they are the same) Mental Set – Tendency to stick to solutions that have worked in the past (may unintentionally narrow options) Problem-Solving Schemas – Step-by-step scripts for selecting information and solving specialized classes of problems Algorithms – Formulas or procedures that automatically generate correct solutions if used correctly (i.e. math equations) Heuristics – General problem-solving strategies that we apply to certain classes of situations Means-End Analysis – Type of heuristics where we identify the differences between the present situation and the desired state, or goal, and then make changes that will reduce these differences Subgoal Analysis – Formulating subgoals/intermediate steps towards a solution (a large task becomes multiple smaller, more manageable tasks) The Representative Heuristic – A guide in estimating the probability that an object or event belongs to a certain category based on the extent to which it represents a prototype of that category The Availability Heuristic – A guideline used to make likelihood judgments based on how easily examples of that category of events come to mind or are “available” in memory Confirmation Bias – Tendency to look for evidence that confirms what one currently believes – causes people to be selective to the kinds of information they expose themselves to Overconfidence – Overestimating one’s correctness in factual knowledge, beliefs, and decisions Schema – A mental framework, an organized pattern of thought about some aspects of the world Script - A mental framework concerning a sequence of events that usually unfolds in a regular, almost standardized order Wisdom – A system of knowledge about the meaning and conduct of life. 5 major components: 1. Rich factual knowledge about life 2. Rich procedural knowledge about life 3 An understanding of lifespan contexts 4. An awareness of the relativism of values and priorities 5. The ability to recognize and manage uncertainty Mental Image – A representation of a stimulus that originates inside your brain rather than from external sensory input (i.e. nighttime dreams) Metacognition – A person’s awareness and understanding of their own cognitive abilities (metamemory = awareness of memory capabilities) CHAPTER 10 Intelligence – The Ability to acquire knowledge, think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Mental Age – The mental level/age at which a child is performing as determined by a “standardized interview” in which the child responds to a series of questions Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – Stern – originally: Mental Age ÷ Chronological Age X 100 (MA÷CAX100); An IW of 100 indicates an average individual. IW scores are based on norms derived from peoples’ various ages. Today’s form of measurement does not use mental age because it does not apply accurately for adults (it is instead based on performance relative to others the same age, 100 is still the average) Psychometrics – The study of statistical properties of psychological tests; the psychometric approach to intelligence focuses on the number and nature of abilities that define intelligence Factor Analysis – Statistical technique that permits a researcher to reduce a large number of measures to a small number of clusters or factors; it identifies the cluster of behaviour or test scores that are highly correlated with one another g-Factor – General intelligence, a component of intellectual performance according to Spearmen – “core of intelligence” Primary Mental Abilities – Spatial ability, perceptual speed, numerical ability, verbal meaning, memory, verbal fluency, and inductive reasoning – defined by L.L Thurstone on the basis of his factor analysis of intelligence test items Crystallized Intelligence – Intellectual abilities that depend on a store of information and the acquisition of particular skills (learned and practiced skill). This intelligence is related to long term memory and the ability to retrieve it Fluid Intelligence – The ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not supply a solution – involves inductive reasoning and good central nervous system functioning. This intelligence is related to the use of working memory Three-Stratum Theory of Cognitive Abilities – A theory that supports 3 levels of mental skills – general, broad, and narrow – in a hierarchical model (Top = g-factos, then broad intellectual factors, then highly specific cognitive abilities) Cognitive Process Approaches – Approaches to intelligence that analyze the mental processes that underlie intelligent thinking/intellectual ability Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (Sternberg) – Theory of intelligence that distinguishes between analytical (academic), practical (everyday life), and creative forms (novel problems) of mental ability (each distinct but all underlie g-factor) – it addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take Meta-Components – High order processes used to plan and regulate task performance – fundamental source of individual differences in fluid intelligence Performance-Components – Actual mental processes used to perform a task Knowledge-Acquisition Components – Allow us to learn from our experiences, store information in memory, and combine new insight with previously acquired information – underlie differences in crystallized intelligence. Emotional Intelligence – The ability to respond adaptively in the emotional realm by reading and responding appropriately to others’ emotions, to be aware of one’s own emotions, and have the ability to control emotions and delay gratification. Achievement Test – A measure of an individual’s degree of accomplishment in a particular subject or task based on a relatively standardized set of experiences – usually a good predictor of future performance in that field; however it assumes everyone had the same opportunity to learn the material Aptitude Test – A measure of a person’s ability to profit from further training or experience in an occupation or a skill; usually based on a measure of skills gained over a person’s life time rather than during a specific course of study – depends less on prior knowledge than an ability to react well, however tests not based on prior knowledge are difficult to make Psychological Test – Method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour obtained under standardized conditions – i.e. on intelligence tests where intelligence is the construct and scores are the operational definition Reliability – In psychological testing, the consistency with which a measure assesses a given characteristic, or different observers agree on a given score; the degree to which clinicians show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions, as well - Test-Retest Reliability – The extent to which scores on a presumably stable characteristic are consistent over time - Internal Consistency – The extent to which items within a psychological test correlate with one another, indicating that they are measuring a common characteristic - Inter-Judge Reliability – The extent to which different observers or scorers agree in their scoring of a particular test or observed behaviour Validity – The extent to which a test measures what it’s supposed to measure; the degree to which a diagnostic system’s categories contain the core features of the behaviour disorders and permit differentiation among the disorders - Construct Validity – The extent to which a test measures the psychological construct (i.e. intelligence, anxiety) that it is purported to measure. Two aspects: o Content Validity – The extent to which test items adequately sample the domain that the test is supposed to measure o Criterion-Related Validiy – The ability of test scores to correlate with meaningful criterion measures (i.e. school, job performance) Standardization – 1. The development of norms that one can be compared to and 2. Creating a standard set of procedures for administering a test/making observations - Norms – Test scores derived from a relevant sample used to evaluate individuals’ scores; behavioural “rules” - Normal Distribution – A frequency distribution in the shape of a symmetrical or bell-shaped curve that satisfies certain mathematical conditions deduced from the theory or probability Static Testing – Very detailed instructions must be adhered closely in order to ensure all testees are responding to as similar a situation as possible so that scores will solely reflect ability Dynamic Testing – After standard testing the examiner gives the respondent guided feedback on how to improve performance and observes how the person uses that information Outcome Bias – The extent to which a test underestimates a person’s true intellectual ability Predictive Bias – A test bas that occurs if the test successfully predicts criterion measures for some groups but not others CHAPTER 11 Motivation – A process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Instinct – An inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Homeostasis – (Cannon) – The maintenance of biological equilibrium, or balance, within the body Drive Theory – (Hull) – The theory that physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce states of internal tension (Drives) that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Incentives – environmental stimulus or condition that motivates behaviour – “pull” an organism toward a goal (even in absence of biological need in todays world) Expectancy X Value Theory – Aka expectancy theory, a cognitive theory that goal-directed behaviour is jointly influenced by 1. The person’s expectancy that a particular behaviour will contribute to reaching a goal and 2. How positively or negatively the person values the goal (incentive value). Motivation = Expectancy X Incentive Value Extrinsic Motivation – Motivation to perform a behaviour to obtain external rewards and reinforcers, such as money, status, attention, and praise Intrinsic Motivation – The motivation to perform a behaviour simply because one finds it interesting or enjoyable for its own sake Need Hierarchy – (Maslow) – The view that human needs are arranged in a progression, beginning with deficiency needs (physical and social survival) and reaching growth needs (self-growth and developing potential) Self-Actualization – In humanistic theories, an inborn tendency to strive toward the realization of one’s full potential Self-Determination Theory – A theory about motivation that focuses on 3 fundamental psychological needs: competence (human need to master challenged), autonomy (experience as result of free choice without side interference) and relatedness (forming meaningful bonds with others) Metabolism – The rate of energy expenditure by the body/ the body’s rate of energy/caloric utilization. 2/3 of energy goes to basal metabolism (resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells) Glucose – Simple sugar that is the body’s (and essentially the brain’s) major source of immediately usable fuel – sensors in the hypothalamus and liver monitor blood glucose concentrations (when low the liver converts stored nutrients back into glucose) CCK (Cholecystokinin) – Small intestine releases this as food arrives in the stomach – decreases eating and helps regulate food intake Leptin – Hormone secreted by fat cells that decreases general appetite. More fat cells = more leptin. Leptin is a “background signal” that does not directly make you feel full like CCK, simply increases the potency of such hormones. Leptin seems to inhibit neuropeptide Y (which makes you full) hence why some overweight people may continue to be hungry. Paraventricular Nucleus (PVN) – A cluster of neurons in the hippocampus packed with receptor sites for transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite Sexual Response Cycle – Physiological response to sexual stimulation that involves stages of excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. Sexual Orientation – A person’s emotional and erotic preference for partners of a particular sex Need for Achievement – The desire to accomplish tasks and attain standards of excellence – relatively stable characteristic that energizes and guides our achievement behaviour Approach-Approach Conflict – A conflict in which an individual is simultaneously attracted to 2 incompatible positive goals Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict – A conflict in which an individual must choose between 2 alternatives, both of which wish to be avoided Approach-Avoidance Conflict – A conflict in which an individual is simultaneously attracted to and repelled by the same goal Delay Discounting – The decrease in value of a future incentive as a function of its distance in time – as we approach the availability of a reward, its incentive value increases Emotion – A pattern of cognitive, physiological, and behavioural responses to situations and events that have relevance to important goals and motives – positive and negative feelings (attractive states) Cognitive Appraisal – The process of making judgments about situations, personal capabilities, likely consequences, and the personal meaning of consequences Expressive Behaviours – Observable behavioural indications of subjectively experiences emotions Empathy – The capacity for experiencing the same emotional response being exhibited by another person; in therapy, the ability of a therapist to view the world through the client’s eyes and understand their emotions Fundamental Emotional Patterns – Basic emotional r
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