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Midterm #3 (Ch. 9-11 & 16) Review A great resource to study the details discussed in Chapters 9, 10, 11, & 16. For the third midterm in the course.

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 9Thought Language and IntelligenceLanguageThe Nature and Structure of LanguageLanguagea system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can produce an almost infinite number of possible messages and meanings o Three critical properties of languageSymbolic Uses sounds written signs or gestures to refer to objects events ideas and feelingsDisplacementcapacity of language to represent objects and conditions that arent physically presentStructure Has rules that govern how symbols can be combined to create meaningful communication unitsGenerative Symbols can be combined to generate an almost infinite number of messages Language StructureSurface structureconsists of the way symbols are combined within a given language o Syntaxthe rules for the combination of symbolsDeep structurerefers to the underlying meaning of the combined symbols o Semanticsthe rules for connecting the symbols to what they representExample Flying planes can be dangerous surface o Deep 1 Planes are dangerous o Deep 2 Piloting a plan is dangerousNoam Chomsky Transformational grammar o Rules transform meaning of the deep structure to sequence of the surface structure oSentencePhrasesWordsMorphemesPhonemesPhonemessmallest units of sound recognized as separate in a given languageMorphemessmallest units of meaning in a language o Include base words prefixes suffixes etcHumorVarious forms of humor based on language o Phonological ambiguityconfusion of sounds o Lexical ambiguityconfusion or double meaning of words o Syntactic ambiguityconfusion of structure o Semantic ambiguityconfusion of meaningChildren progress from phonological and lexical humor to syntactic and semanticAcquiring a LanguageBiological Foundations o Several facts suggest biological basis for language acquisitionHuman children despite limited thinking skills begin to master language at early life without formal instruction o Between 13 months infants vocalize entire range of phonemes found in worlds languages cooing o By 2 months infacts show phoneme discrimination o About six months infants begin to make sounds of their native tongue and to discard those of other languages o Linguists believe there exists a critical period between infancy and puberty when language is most easily learned o Can children form language without hearing others speakWild childrennoIsolated childrenmaybeLack adult models for language eg deaf kids with parents who dont use sign languagemaybeCan develop signs with rudimentary syntaxOther animalsno o Sex differencesBrocas LobeLeft Hemispheres Frontal LobeSpeech Production Wernickes AreaRear part of temporal LobeSpeech Comprehension Aphasiadisruption in speech comprehension and or productionMen who suffer left hemisphere strokes are more likely than women to show severe aphasic symptoms disruption in speech comprehension andor production Suggests that women may share more language function with right hemisphereSocial Learning Processes o Motheresehigh pitched intonation used by parents to converse with infants o BF Skinner developed operant conditioning explanation for language acquisitionChildrens language development is strongly governed by adults reinforcing appropriate language and nonreinforcing of inappropriate verbalizationProblemsChildren learn much too fastParents typically do not correct grammar as much as truth value o Telegraphic speechtwo word sentences uttered during second year of life that consist of a noun and verb eg Want cookieBilingualism Learning a Second Language o Learned best and spoken most fluently when learned during critical period of childhood o If both languages are learned at early age they often function in the same brain region o After the age of 7 mastery of language becomes more difficult Linguistic Influences on ThinkingEmpiriciststhought is a mental imageBehaviouriststhought is a motor actionLinguistic relativity hypothesis Benjamin Lee Whorflanguage not only influences but also determines what we are capable of thinking o Multiple studies have disproved the determination partModern view is that language can influence how we think how efficiently we categorize our experiences and how much detail we attend to in our daily life experienceLanguage can help create and maintain stereotypes Language also influences how well we think in certain domains o English children consistently score lower than Asian children in mathematical skills due to words and symbols used in each language to represent numbersChinese uses easier system to learn numbers 11ten oneEnglish speakers must use more complex system 11eleven Modes of thought These modes of thinking enter into our abilities to reason solve problems and engage in many forms of intelligent behavior Propositional thoughta form of linguistically based thought that expresses a statement in subjectpredicate thoughtImaginal thoughta form of thinking that uses images that can be from any sense modalityMotoric thoughtmental representations of motor movementsConcepts and PropositionsPropositionsstatements that express facts most of our thinking occurs in this form o Consist of concepts combined in a particular wayTypically one concept is a subject another is a predicateConceptsbasic units of semantic memory mental categories into which we place objects activities abstractions and events that have essential features in commonPrototypesmost typical and familiar members of a class that defines a concept o Use of prototypes is most elementary method of forming conceptsRequires only that we note similarities among objectsWe often decide which category something belongs to by its degree of resemblance to the prototype People tend to assign greater costs to negative outcomes than they assign value to an equivalent positive outcome We acquire language during childhood with exceptional ease and then with language to help us we define our world using concepts We arrange these concepts into propositions so we can make statements about our world Reasoning and Problem SolvingReasoningTwo types of reasoning o Deductive reasoningreasoning from a general principle to a specific caseTop Down that is from general principles to a conclusion about a specific case Basis of formal mathematics and logicViewed as stronger and more valid reasoning because conclusion cannot be false if premises are trueSyllogism If all humans are mortal first premise and Socrates is a human second premise then Socrates must be mortal conclusion o Inductive reasoningreasoning from specific facts to develop a general principleBottom Upstart with specific facts and trying to develop a genereal principleLeads to likelihood rather than certaintyNew observations may disprove conclusionHypotheticodeductive approach to scientific theoryconclude that an explanation cannot be correct and must be revised or discardedStumbling Blocks in Reasoning o Distraction by irrelevant information causes people to fail at solving problemspeople take into account irrelevant information that leads them astray o Failure to apply deductive rulespeople think of problem solving methods as to be used only in certain situations and cannot apply to new problems o Belief biastendency to abandon logical rules in favour of personal beliefsStudents claimed conclusion was not correct to following syllogism All things that are smoked are good for ones health cigarettes are smoked therefore cigarettes are good for ones healthMany people confuse factual correctness with logical correctness Problem SolvingFour stages of problem solving how well we carry out these stages determines our success in solving the problem o Understanding or framing the problemproblem must be framed optimally to have chance of generating an effective solution How we mentally represent or frame a problem can make a huge difference Initial understanding of a problem is a key step toward a successful solution o Generating potential solutionsonce we interpreted our problem we can begin to formulate potential solutions or explanations 1 Must determine which procedures and explanations will be considered 2 which solutions are consistent with evidence that has been observedo Testing the solutionsremaining solutions must be tested and evaluated
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