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Midterm

Midterm #4 (Ch. 12-15) Review A great resource to study the details discussed in Chapters 12, 13, 14, & 15. For the fourth and final exam in the course.

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12Personality Personalitythe distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situationsAspects of personality have three characteristics o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviourThe Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreuds Psychoanalytic Theory o Considered personality to be an energy system o Psychic energygenerated by instinctual drives this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect releaseBuildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions o Mental events are dividedConsciousevents that we are presently aware ofPreconsciousmemories thoughts feelings images that we are unaware of at the moment but can be recalledUnconsciousdynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lie beyond our awareness o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structuresIdprimitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instinctsOperates according to the pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations or realityEgoexecutive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id prohibitions of superego and dictates of realityOperates according to reality principle tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulsesSuperegomoral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of societyRewards compliance with pride and noncompliance with guilt o Id and superego are formed when child is young ego develops later o Iceberg analogyid is below the water unconscious while ego and superego are mostly above water consciousEgo is mostly above water while superego has portions both above and under o Unconscious conflictinteraction of id ego and superego results in constant struggle causing anxietyReality anxietyegos fear of real world threatsNeurotic anxietyegos fear of ids desiresMoral anxietyegos fear of guilt from superego o Defense mechanismsunconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxietyarousing impulsesRepressionego uses some of its energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories from entering consciousnessSublimination displacementcompletely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms art sports etcRationalizationurge reinterpreted in acceptable termsProjectionown urges seen in others I hate you becomes You hate meIsolationmemories allowed back into consciousness without motives or emotionsRegressionmentally returning to an earlier safer state1Conversionconflict converted into physical symptom developing blindness so as not to see an anxietyarousing situationo Psychosexual stagesstages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain body partsOral 02 Anal 23 Phallic 46 Latency 7puberty Genital pubertyDeprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation in which instincts are focused on a particular themeOedipus complexthe male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother and views his father as a rival females complex referred to as Electra complexEvaluating Psychoanalytic Theory o Alfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest the desire to advance the welfare of others o Carl Jung developed analytic psychologyHumans not only posses a personal unconscious of life experiences but a collective unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanityMemories are represented by archetypes inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways o Object relationsthe images or mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregiversThe Humanistic PerspectiveSelfactualizationthe total realization of ones human potentialCarl Rogerss Self Theory o Selfan organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneselfMust have selfconsistency absence of conflict among selfperceptions and congruency consistency between selfperceptions and experiences to maintain selfconceptExperiences that are inconsistent with selfconcept evokes threat and anxiety o People are born with a need for positive regard acceptance sympathy and loveUnconditional positive regardcommunicated attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another personConditional positive regarddependant on behaviour of the childNeed for positive selfregard developsLack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love only when standards are metFosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves o Fully functioning personsselfactualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of worth and who exhibit congruence spontaneity creativity and a desire to develop furtherResearch on the Self o Selfesteemhow positively or negatively we feel about ourselvesChildren develop high selfesteem when parents communicate unconditional acceptance and love establish clear guidelines for behaviour and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions o Selfverificationa need to preserve selfconcept by maintaining selfconsistency and congruency o Selfenhancementprocesses whereby one enhances positive selfregard o Gender schemasorganized mental structures that contain our understanding of the attributes and behaviours that are appropriate and expected for both gendersTrait and Biological PerspectivesFactor analysisstatistical technique that permits a researcher to reduce a large number of measures to a small number of clusters or factors2
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