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Chapter 12 – Personality A comprehensive summary of key terms and aspects of the required learnings / teachings from Ch. 12.

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Psychology 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

Chapter 12Personality Personalitythe distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterize a persons responses to life situationsAspects of personality have three characteristics o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion suggesting an inner personality that guides and directs behaviourThe Psychodynamic PerspectiveFreuds Psychoanalytic Theory o Considered personality to be an energy system o Psychic energygenerated by instinctual drives this energy powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct or indirect releaseBuildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity or indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions o Mental events are dividedConsciousevents that we are presently aware ofPreconsciousmemories thoughts feelings images that we are unaware of at the moment but can be recalledUnconsciousdynamic realm of wishes feelings and impulses that lie beyond our awareness o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structuresIdprimitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instinctsOperates according to the pleasure principle seeks immediate gratification or release regardless of rational considerations or realityEgoexecutive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id prohibitions of superego and dictates of realityOperates according to reality principle tests reality to decide when the id can safely discharge impulsesSuperegomoral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of societyRewards compliance with pride and noncompliance with guilt o Id and superego are formed when child is young ego develops later o Iceberg analogyid is below the water unconscious while ego and superego are mostly above water consciousEgo is mostly above water while superego has portions both above and under o Unconscious conflictinteraction of id ego and superego results in constant struggle causing anxietyReality anxietyegos fear of real world threatsNeurotic anxietyegos fear of ids desiresMoral anxietyegos fear of guilt from superego o Defense mechanismsunconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of anxietyarousing impulsesRepressionego uses some of its energy to prevent anxietyarousing memories from entering consciousnessSublimination displacementcompletely masking the sinister underlying impulses through other forms art sports etcRationalizationurge reinterpreted in acceptable termsProjectionown urges seen in others I hate you becomes You hate meIsolationmemories allowed back into consciousness without motives or emotionsRegressionmentally returning to an earlier safer state
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