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Psych October Exam Review.doc

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Psychology 1000

Exam Review 18/10/2012 17:00:00 ← Psychology: the scientific study of behavior actions thoughts feelings reactions and the factors that influence it • Basic research vs applied research • Lab or real world (for interest) vs practical problems ← ← 4 goals of psychology • describe • explain causes • predict • control ← ← 6 perspectives • Biological o understanding behavior in terms of biological process, evolution, genetics  mind-body dualism: the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body  monism: mind and body are one and mental events are simply a product of physical events o Charles Darwin:  Natural selection  Survival of the fittest  Nothing special about humans meaning that humans can be studied scientifically  Do not have to be a positive outcome o Evolutionary psychology: focuses on the role of evolution in the development of human behavior • Cognitive o Humans as information-processing problem solvers o Thoughts influence emotions and behavior  William Wundt:  Founder of structuralism  Introspection: verbal reporting on immediate experience  Established first psychological lab  Hermann von Ebbinghaus: first empirical study of  Williams James (functionalism)  Studied function or purposes of consciousness  Wolfgang Kohler (gestalt psychology) • The whole is greater than the sum of the parts • Psychodynamic o Searches for the causes of behavior within the works of the mind o Freud  Hysteria  Attention to unconscious influences importance of sexual drives even in nonsexual spheres and the impact of early childhood experiences  Defense Mechanisms  Repression • Behavioral o emphasis on how the external environment shapes behavior o John Locke: nothing can exist within the intellect that did not have its origin in its senses (EMPIRICISM)  Tabula Rasa (blank tablet) o John Watson: Rise of Behaviorism (empiricist)  Observable behavior  Humans are conditions of their environment o Skinner; the environment rather than the individual characteristics is the primary determinant of our behavior o Cognitive behaviorism: bridges the gap between behavior and cognitive  Albert Bandura: we can learn new behaviors by observing the actions of others and storing this information in memory • Humanistic o Importance of motives and freedom  self actualization o Carl Rogers  Client-centered approach to therapy • Social-cultural Study of cultural differences and how culture is transmitted to its members Culture: enduring values, beliefs, behaviors and traditions shared by a large group of people and passed on from one generation to the next Orientation toward individualism versus collectivism represents one of the ways in which cultures can vary ← ← Psychology: • What do psychologists do? o Private practice o Colleges, universities (research, teaching and administration) o Psychiatry versus Psychology: (PHD) ← ← Levels of analysis • Biological o Focus on brain processing, hormonal and genetic influences and evolutionary adaptations • Psychological: focus on mental processes and psychological motives • Environmental : focus on physical and social stimuli Chapter 2 & the Appendix A ← ← Scientific Process • Observation/ Question idea • Form Hypothesis (if then statement) • Test Hypothesis gather evidence • Analyze data and draw conclusions • More research and theory building • New hypothesis derived from theory ← ← Theory: incorporates and organizes information within a single framework • Testable • Predictions support research • Law of parsimony (simpler theory) ← ← Variables: operational definition: how are you measuring what you want to measure? • Ex. What is depression? How to define? • Self reports “other” reports, physiological behavioral ← ← Descriptive research • Case studies o can challenge theories o Generating questions o Illustrating treatment o Rare events brain damage o Problems: not general to population • Naturalistic observation o Observe behavior in natural setting • Survey (population vs. sample) o Questionnaires o Population group want to study o Sample: subset of population  Want representative same characteristics of population  Randomly choose from there with an equal chance of being picked ← ← Correlation: are X and Y related? • Pearson product- moment correlation coefficiecloser to + or – 1 better fit o Positive as one variable increases so does other o Negatively sloped down, as one increased the other increased ← ← Experimental • Does manipulation of variations in X produce any changes in Y? • Control for confounding variables • Experimental (receives independent variable) and control groups ← ← Potential Problems: • Internal validitwere you measuring what you wanted to? o Confounding variables: cannot determine which influenced o Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up about the hypothesis from the researcher o Placebo effect: expect that they will feel a difference o Experimenter Expectancy Effects: double blind procedure  Don’t know which group participants are in • External validitcan be applicable to real-world? ← ← Central Tendency: Mean (average), Median (middle number), Mode (most common) • Measures of variability o Range o Variance (deviation score)  Variance= sum (X-M)2/N  Standard deviation is the square route of the variance o 68% within 1 SD either side of the mean o 95 within 2 SD on either side of the mean  34.1%, 13.6,2.1 ← Inferential Statistics • Drawing conclusions about a certain population based on the sample we studied • Null hypothesis (expect no difference between the groups) ← ← Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior • Neurons o Axon: conducts electrical impulses • Dendrites: receiving messages from neighboring neurons • Myelin Sheath: insulation increases axonal conduction • Nodes of ranvier: gaps in Myelin Sheath o FASTER • Glial Cells: hold neurons in place, protect ← ← Action Potential • Resting potential= -70 mV • Gra
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