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Midterm 1 Psychology Lecture Notes

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Western University
Psychology 1000

1 Chapter 1 The Brain  The effects of cocaie alters the dopamine system The Mind  Mind can display illusory behavior eg. optical illusions  Looks at effects of different things effect on the mind Learning  Effects of media and television on one‟s mind  Prevalence of violenc Columbine shooting?  Perhaps Don Juan became the way he is because of media? Clinical Issues  Psychosurgery  brain surgery in the absence of obvious organic damge Moniz (1935) o Radical prefrontal lobotomy has “calming” effect on violent emotional behavior in chimps began testing onhumans o Over next 20 years – 40,000 in the U.S alone o Pre-frontal lobes “control” emotions o Therefore separate from rest of brain o Patients become more docile, apathetic, severe blunting of emotion, intellectual problems & can be terminal Explanations of Behavior Cultural and Environmental factors?  e.g, value system  A heated/hot environment may contribute to aggression  The western society rewards aggression while others don‟t and actually frown upon it Individual and Psychological factors?  e.g learning, cognitive processes  Learning from a violent or aggressive household/role models  How people think Biological factors?  e.g neural, hormonal  describe aggression by looking at the hormones in ones body Schools of Psychology  Functionalism - Focus on the function or significance of behavior - How does a behavior (or mental process) help us to adapt? - Primarily biological - Modern examples: psychobiology, neuroscience, ethology  Psychodynamic 2 - Focus on unconscious experience...the “mind” - Freud - Look for unresolved conflict - Importance of personality - Modern example: Brief Psychodynamic Therapy, Unconscious processing  Behaviourism - Focus on behavior…forget the “mind” - “if you cant see it, it doesn‟t exist” - Discuss how behavior changes under various conditions - Primarily environmental - Modern example: Learning theories, behavior modification Gestalt Tradition  Look at how people think and remember  Focus on perception and experience  How you experience the world  Started in Germany  Consider everything in context  Both biological and environmental o Cognition o Information processing Humanistic Tradition  Focus on values and choice  “everyone is trying to maximize their own potential”  Help people fulfill potential  Both biological and environmental o Carl Rogers‟ therapy(im not going to tell you whats wrong, you need to figure it out and work through it) o The “Self”(important for understanding the kinds of thongs that people actually do) Biological Tradition  Focus on neural and chemical basis of behavior  Mind is constructed by brain  Biological (and environmental)  Modern Example o Neuroscience o Brain Imaging Sociocultural Tradition  Humans embedded in culture  Norms, group process 3  Environmental o Culture can influence biological but it is mainly environmental  Modern Examples: o Cross cultural psychology o Issues in development, disorders, thinking Psychology  Psychology is whatever psychologists do  43%, Clinical Psychologists – deals with individuals who have problems in some way shape or form  11%, Counseling Psychologists – deals with people who don‟t have clinically diagnosable behaviours  4%, Developmental Psychologists – studies development in children and how they age  5%, Educational Psychologists – thinks about what works and doesn‟t work in educational systems  8%, Experimental Psychologists – running experiments in an academic setting  7%, Industrial Organizational – study how things work in a work place/setting  2%, Personality Psychologists – traits, attitudes and behaviours of people  7%, School Psychologists – usually in the guidance program, and they talk about school/education related things  4%, Social Psychologists – deal with aggression, attraction and behaviours of people  9%, Others – legal aspects, energy conservation and other random topics Pioneers of Psychology  Rene Descartes – Talked about how neurons work and how the brain functions, as well as the structures involved and was a mathematician/philosopher. “reflex arc”  Gustav Fechner – Designed how to measure psychological stimuli. Ex our perception of brightness in the room  Wilhelm Wundt – Designed the first psychology lab, was a structuralist and was thought to be the father of psychology  William James – Thought he was the father of psychology, was a functionalist, and wrote the very first book about psychology 4  Mary Calkins – Worked as an instructor at a university, was discriminated against, studied developmental psychology and was the very first president of the psychology place  Sigmund Freud – Was a physician, studied psychodynamics, and was very interested in the mind  Carl Jung – Was very interested in Freuds‟ ideas, started his own school about psychodynamics and stayed away from the sexual aspect of Freuds‟ ideas  Carl Rogers – Humanists traditions, Rogerian therapy; psychologists speak, only listen  Ivan Pavlov – Nobel prize for salivation experiments, Studied classical conditioning  B.F Skinner – behaviour was controlled by rewards and punishments, operant conditioning  Jean Piaget – helped develop intelligence scale, how do kids develop intelligence, kids develop intellect differently, kids think differently from adults at a certain time of their lives  Karl Lashley– got rid of structures in the brain and wanted to see what happened  Wilder Penfield – brain surgeon, studied kids with epilepsy, cutting off corpus callasum, mapped the brain cortex, and told us about various brain areas and regions  Wolfgang Kohler – German psychologist, was a gestaltist, studied chimps and apes,  Kurt Levin – known as the father of social psychology, studied group processing and thinking Themes (1) Psychology is empirical – what does the data support? (2) Psychology is theoretically diverse – everything is extremely complex. Psychologists have theories about everything (3) Behaviour is determined by multiple causes – there is no one answer to how behaviour is caused (4) Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour (5) Experience is subjective – individual experience is important, everyone sees things differently. Gestaltists (6) Psychology evolves in a socio-cultural historical context 5 Chapter 2 Predictions  $1.00 VS. $20.00 for lying  People who were paid $1.00 liked the experiment more than the others  Test all claims in psychology Scientific Method: 1.) Identify the problem/formulate hypothesis - Hypothesis: tentative statement about a relation between 2 or more events - Theory: a collection of hypotheses; an organizing system; more general, elaborate - Good theories generate (testable) hypotheses - Compare: Behaviour Theory is „better‟ then Freudian theory because it is testable 2.) Design + execute the experiment  variables and control **EXAM** - Identify variables - Independent  Manipulated - Dependent  Measured - Independent causes Dependent - Control, we want to say that: causes - Independent  Dependent (without proper control, the experiment is confounded) 3.)Determine the “truth” - Do your results support the hypothesis? -Are there any REAL differences?  STATISTICS 4.)Communicate the results - Publish a report in journal - Present a verbal description of results at a convention - Discuss several related experiments in book chapter Summary - Psychologists are interested in explaining the causes of behavior - To examine causal relations, they use the scientific method 6 - Form hypotheses - Manipulate Independent variables - Measure Dependent variables - All extra variables should be controlled - If not, experiment is confounded and experimenter makes a mistake in causal explanation Research Methods  Observational Methods - Collecting information about behavior without trying to change it - Non-participants or participant e.g, Festinger‟s When Prophesy Fails  Survey Methods - Collecting information about behavior through surveys and questionnaires e.g, Kinsey report on sexual behavior  Case Study Methods - In-depth study of one individual e.g Luria‟s “ S “, Breur‟s Anna  Correlational Methods - Determining the degree of relationship between two or more variables - e.g investigating the relation between hours of TV viewing and grades  Experimental Methods - Manipulating one or more variables to determine the effect on some behavior - e.g studying the effect of vitamin B12 deprivation on maze learning Experimental Methods  Question o Does TV violence cause aggression. 1. Observation 2. Experiment Between Groups Design  Group 1 watch violent show measure aggression DEPENDENT  Group 2 watch non-violent show measure aggression DEPENDENT 7  Group 3 no TV (control) measure aggression DEPENDENT o You need a group 3 because then you will know what regular aggression is o It is important to have a no treatment control Within – Groups Design  All subjects are exposed to all conditions  Less people are need  All watch violent show measure aggression  All watch non-violent show measure aggression o Problems?  What you watch first will effect what you watch next  Order effect  Need to counterbalance – change the order that people watch things – you must check for it and watch out for it  More people choose to go for the between groups design even though it is more costly  This way, they don‟t have to worry about the order effect 3. Measure Ideas:  Aggression questionnaire before and after the experiment  Put them in different situations and see how they would react  Show them images and see how they react  Measure heat rate – change in physiological stuff  Use a simulation game and see reactions  If they were kids, let them beat up on something safe  Put them in a competitive argument and see how they behave  Give them more stress and see how they react Mike‟s Suggestions:  Self-report  Verbal attack o Insults and then give them the opportunity to actually attack them  Physical attack o Use a machine to measure it  “Safe” attack o Let kids beat up something that doesn‟t hurt them Measuring Aggression 8  Self-report  Verbal attack  Physical attack  “Safe” attack Threats to Validity  Internal Validity - Degree to which experiment supports causal conclusion(can be tested) - How confidently we can conclude that the independent cariable is the cause of the results  External Validity - Degree to which results can be generalized  Demand Characteristics - Cues in experiment convey hypothesis to participants - They “help” experimenter - When the participant finds out what youre trying to test and they play along - Geen and Berkowitz (1967)  Experiment Expectancy - Experimenter “conveys” hypothesis to participants - If experimenter expect hypothesis to be true, explain it better/worse to participants  changes results of experiment - Intons-Peterson (1983) Questions What do lab experiments tell us about everyday life?  Nothing but it is the only way that you can keep the controls on Doesn‟t behavior depend on ones culture or gender or personality?  Gender is different – it depends on the situation so it depends What do animal experiments tell us about human behavior?  You can have very good controls over these situations  Cats are used for analyzing the visual system because there system is very similar to humans Is it ethical to experiment on humans and animals?  You have to write an experiment then it has to be approved by your superior then it has to be reviewed by the ethics review board and then the government if you are getting a grant  If humans are involved, they must know everything that is happening so that no one can pull a “fast one” on you 9 o You don‟t tell them what they expect to find, you just tell them what the study is about and what condition they will be in o Make it as broad as possible How do you know if your study worked?  Look at the data and develop statistics 10 Chapter 3 The Nervous System 1.) Descartes  Reflec Arc - Stimuli transferred from periphery to brain and reflected back. - How?  “Animal Spirits” - Importance of pineal gland. Center of gland- pine cone shaped. Place where divined intervention occurred. Had to place religion into everything so people would listen 2.) Swammerdam‟s “Frog Experiement”- proved no animal spirits, noticed electricity caused the frogs leg to knee jerk. 3.) Bell  Types of nerves Sensory  afferent fibres Motor  efferent fibres (go to effectors) 4.) Bell & Muller  Specific nerve energy? WRONG - Brain has to figure all of its stuff out 5.) Speed of Impulse - Muller: 9000ft/min to 57 bill/sec WRONG - Helmhotz: 50-100 metres/second 6.) Reaction Time - Maskelyne and Kinnebrook - Everyones reaction time is different therefore responses are always different Synaptic Communication **Myelin Sheath: If a viral disease were to destroy the myelin coating, neural conduction would slow down The Neuron - Notable aspects of the cell:  Cell body  Axon  Axon terminals, synaptic knobs 11 o Covered in Myelin Sheath o Nodes of Ranvier separate axons  Dendrites Classify by Shape o Bipolar neuron  Two poles  Multipolar neuron  Unipolar neuron - Classify by Function: o 1.) Sensory Neurons  Afferent(bring to central structure) o 2.) Motor Neurons  Efferent(send out) o 3.) Inter Neurons  Relay Stations(produce action)  How does a cell produce an electrical signal? - Inside cell are ions (more negative charges) - Outside cell are also ions except there are a lot more positive sodium ions - Cell membrane separates ions  semi permeable Action Potential  -70 millivolts = resting potential  Stimulation  causes electrical potential to jump from -70 to +40 millivolts; This is called depolarization  Depolarization allows positive sodium to flow into the cell  This only occurs if the stimulation causes the millivolts to surpass -55  Called the action potential threshold  Following stimulation, reaches max of +40  Repolarization then occurs: everything goes back to normal aka. Bringing it back to resting potential  kicks out positive potassium(K+ outflow) ions and resets it back to negative charge  Dips below -70 millivolts however, this is called “hyperpolarization”Absolute refractory period: Period where you can‟t excite/stimulate area  Relative refractory period: Can be stimulated, but requires stronger impulse then normal 12  During ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD, nothing can stimulate neuron  During RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD, requires a stronger stimulant to stimulate neuron  Nerve goes from polarized→depolarized→repola
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